Drawing the map: The creation and regulation of geographic constraints on shared bikes and e-scooters in San Francisco, CA


  • Marcel E. Moran UC Berkeley




Dockless, Bikesharing, e-Scooters, Micromobility, Transport


A prominent question in transportation planning is how cities should regulate emerging modes, such as shared bikes and e-scooters. This pertains to a range of attributes, including pricing, use of the public right of way, number of vehicles in a fleet, and vehicle speeds. However, less attention has been paid to the way private operators spatially constrain access to their fleets, such as via the use of virtual geographic boundaries (hereafter “geofences”), or how municipalities have regulated these features. San Francisco, given it is home to a number of these schemes, presents a compelling case for studying geofences, and how regulators have sought to influence them to further public policy goals, including spatial equity. This study analyzes each bike and e-scooter geofence in San Francisco longitudinally from 2017 to 2019 via manual digitization of all geofences. This reveals high levels of overlap in the city’s dense northeast quadrant, with limited to no coverage in western neighborhoods. Each operator’s geofence expanded over this period, filling in gaps in the northeast quadrant and expanding outward in each direction. Review of permit guidelines and applications submitted by operators indicate that San Francisco’s regulations for geofences have been limited and inconsistent, which may have contributed to the concentration of services in one section of the city, as well as disconnected geofence “islands.” Together, these observations demonstrate that if broad geofence coverage (i.e., spatial equity) is an explicit municipal goal, such an aim must prominently feature into the regulatory process. This is particularly important given that operators, if left with freedom over geofence design, are likely to emphasize only a city’s densest areas, especially if tight caps are set on the allowed number of vehicles. Finally, this case also exemplifies that geofences are not drawn in a vacuum but instead relate to other permit conditions as well as pressure from community organizations.


Andersson, F., Haltiwanger, J. C., Kutzbach, M. J., Pollakowski, H. O., & Weinberg, D. H. (2018). Job displacement and the duration of joblessness: The role of spatial mismatch. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 100(2), 203–18. https://doi.org/10.1162/REST_a_00707

Austin Public Health. (2019). Dockless electric scooter-related injuries study. Austin TX: Austin Public Health. Retrieved from https://austintexas.gov/sites/default/files/files/Health/Web_Dockless_Electric_Scooter-Related_Injury_Study_final_version_EDSU_5.14.19.pdf

Barnes, F. (2019). A scoot, skip, and a JUMP away: Learning from shared micromobility systems in San Francisco. Los Angeles: Institute of Transportation Studies, UCLA. https://doi.org/10.17610/T6QP40

BART. (2018). BART Board TV. Retrieved from https://www.bart.gov/about/bod/multimedia

Bauer, F., Riley, J. D., Lewandowski, K., Najafi, K., Markowski, H., & Kepros, J. (2020). Traumatic injuries associated with standing motorized scooters. JAMA Network Open, 3 (3), e201925–e201925. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1925

Bhuiyan, J. (2019, August 15). Scooter startup snubs San Francisco’s poorest neighborhood despite promising access. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from https://www.latimes.com/business/technology/story/2019-08-14/san-francisco-scoot-tenderloin-bird

Bliss, L. (2019, April 19). When will the electric e-scooters take over? CityLab. Retrieved from https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2019/04/electric-scooter-micromobility-transportation-revolution/587440/

Blumenberg, E., & Ong, P. (2001). Cars, buses, and jobs: Welfare participants and employment access in Los Angeles. Transportation Research Record, 1756(1), 22–31. https://doi.org/10.3141/1756-03

Blumenberg, E., & Pierce, G. (2012). Automobile ownership and travel by the poor: Evidence from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Transportation Research Record, 2320(1), 28–36. https://doi.org/10.3141/2320-04

Bradshaw, K. (2019, March 19). Daily e-scooter use hits all-time record during SXSW, Austin City data show. Statesman. Retrieved from https://www.statesman.com/news/20190319/daily-scooter-use-hits-all-time-record-during-sxsw-austin-city-data-show

Bracco, S. (2018, October 15). With city approval, Jump expands e-bike pilot program. Hoodline (blog). Retrieved from https://hoodline.com/2018/10/with-city-approval-jump-expands-e-bike-pilot-program

Brinklow, A. (2018, August 8). GoBike expansion steers off course [updated]. Curbed San Francisco. Retrieved from https://sf.curbed.com/2018/8/8/17666186/ford-gobike-nimbys-supervisors-bikes-docking-stations-sf

Castellanos, S. (2018, December 21). DC just released the first evaluation of its dockless bike and e-scooter experiment. TheCityFix (blog). Retrieved from https://thecityfix.com/blog/d-c-just-released-the-findings-from-its-dockless-bike-and-scooter-pilot-sebastian-castellanos/

Castiglione, J., Hiatt, R., Chang, T., & Charlton, B. (2006). Application of travel demand microsimulation model for equity analysis. Transportation Research Record 1977(1), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198106197700105

Clark, H. M. (2017). Who rides public transportation? American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved from https://www.apta.com/wp-content/uploads/Resources/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/APTA-Who-Rides-Public-Transportation-2017.pdf

Clarke, M., & Clary, J. (2019, January 14). Explore dockless data with Austin Transportation. Civiqueso (blog). Retrieved from https://medium.com/civiqueso/explore-dockless-data-with-austin-transportation-4a308aa5c18

Clewlow, R. (2018). The micro-mobility revolution: The introduction and adoption of electric e-scooters in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Populus. Retrieved from https://www.populus.ai/micro-mobility-2018-july/

Cohen, A., & Shaheen, S. A. (2016). Planning for shared mobility (PAS 583). Chicago: American Planning Association. Retrieved from https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9107556/

Dargay, J. M. (2001). The effect of income on car ownership: Evidence of asymmetry. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 35(9), 807–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(00)00018-5

DeMaio, P. (2009). Bike-sharing: History, impacts, models of provision, and future. Journal of Public Transportation, 12(4), 41–56.

Docherty, I., Marsden, G., & Anable, J. (2018). The governance of smart mobility. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 115, 114–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2017.09.012

Everett, H. (2020, May 28). Uber scraps thousands of bikes, Lime acquires JUMP division. Cycling Industry News. Retrieved from https://cyclingindustry.news/uber-scraps-thousands-jump-bikes-acquired-by-lime/

Fang, K., Agrawal, A. W., Steele, J., Hunter, J. J., & Hooper, A. M. (2018). Where do riders park dockless, shared electric e-scooters? Findings from San Jose, California (Project 1713). San Jose, CA: Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose State University. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1250&context=mti_publications

Fishman, E. (2020). Bike share. London: Routledge.

Fitzgerald Rodriguez, J. (2018, August 5). Supes, neighbors block Ford GoBike’s citywide expansion. San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved from http://www.sfexaminer.com/supes-neighbors-block-ford-gobikes-citywide-expansion/

Fitzgerald Rodriguez, J. (2019, August 16). Did Scoot ‘redline’ Sf neighborhoods? Chinatown group says, ‘We asked for it.’ The San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved from https://www.sfexaminer.com/news/did-scoot-redline-sf-neighborhoods-chinatown-group-says-we-asked-for-it/

García-Palomares, J., Gutiérrez, J., & Latorre, M. (2012). Optimizing the location of stations in bike-sharing programs: A GIS approach. Applied Geography, 35, 235–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.07.002

Goebel, B. (2013, July 16). Bay area bike share to launch next month. KQED. Retrieved from https://www.kqed.org/news/103757/bay-area-bike-share-to-launch-next-month

Golub, A., & Martens, K. (2014). Using principles of justice to assess the modal equity of regional transportation plans. Journal of Transport Geography, 41, 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2014.07.014

Goodman, A., & Cheshire, J. (2014). Inequalities in the London bicycle sharing system revisited: Impacts of extending the scheme to poorer areas but then doubling prices. Journal of Transport Geography, 41, 272–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2014.04.004

Goodyear, S. (2014, September 15). Why bike lovers should be happy about “bikelash.” CityLab. Retrieved from http://www.citylab.com/commute/2014/09/why-bike-lovers-should-be-happy-about-bikelash/380219/

Giuliano, G. (2005). Low income, public transit, and mobility. Transportation Research Record, 1927(1), 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198105192700108

Groth, S. (2019). Multimodal divide: Reproduction of transport poverty in smart mobility Trends. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 125, 56–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2019.04.018

Hammerl, T. (2018, January 10). SFMTA issues 1st dockless e-bike sharing permit to JUMP bikes. Hoodline (blog). Retrieved from https://hoodline.com/2018/01/sfmta-issues-1st-dockless-e-bike-sharing-permit-to-jump-bikes

Hannig, J. (2016). Community disengagement: The greatest barrier to equitable bikeshare. In A. Golub, M. L. Hoffman, A. Lugo, & G. Sandoval (Eds.), Bicycle justice and urban rransformation: Biking for all? (pp. 210–22). Abingdon-on-Thames: Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.libproxy.berkeley.edu/lib/berkeley-ebooks/detail.action?docID=4595322#

Hoffmann, M. L. (2016). Bike lanes are white lanes: Bicycle advocacy and urban planning. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/book/45847/

Hollingsworth, J., Copeland, B., & Johnson, J. X. (2019). Are e-e-scooters polluters? The environmental impacts of shared dockless electric e-scooters. Environmental Research Letters, 14(8), 084031. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab2da8

Jackson, K. T. (1985). Crabgrass frontier: The suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ji, Y., Fan, Y., Ermagun, A., Cao, X., Wang, W., & Das, K. (2017). Public bicycle as a feeder mode to rail transit in China: The role of gender, age, income, trip purpose, and bicycle theft experience. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(4), 308–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2016.1253802

Jose, B. (2018, August 30). SFMTA offers two permits for one-year powered e-scooter pilot. SFMTA. Retrieved from https://www.sfmta.com/blog/sfmta-offers-two-permits-one-year-powered-scooter-pilot

Kabra, A., Belavina, E., & Girotra, K. (2019). Bike-share systems: Accessibility and availability. Management Science, 66(9), 3799–3801. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2019.3407

Kodransky, M., & Lewenstein, G. (2014). Connecting low-income people to opportunity with shared mobility. IDTP/Living cities. Retrieved from https://www.itdp.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Shared-Mobility_Full-Report.pdf

Kozar, K. (2019). Shared mobility pilot program summary report. Santa Monica, CA: City of Santa Monica. Retrieved from https://www.smgov.net/uploadedFiles/Departments/PCD/Transportation/SantaMonicaSharedMobilityEvaluation_Final_110419.pdf

Lazarus, J., Pourquier, J. C., Feng, F., Hammel, H., & Shaheen, S. A. (2020). Micromobility evolution and expansion: Understanding how docked and dockless bikesharing models complement and compete – A case study of San Francisco. Journal of Transport Geography, 84, 102620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.102620

Liu, D., & Kwan, M. P. (2020). Measuring spatial mismatch and job access inequity based on transit-based job accessibility for poor job seekers. Travel Behavior and Society, 19, 184–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2020.01.005

Lohry, G. F., & Yiu, A. (2015). Bikeshare in China as a public service: Comparing government run and public-private partnership operation models. Natural Resources Forum, 39(1), 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-8947.12063

Lugo, A. E. (2018). Bicycle/race: Transportation, culture, and resistance. Portland, OR: Microcosm Publishing.

Lyft. (2019, June 11). Introducing bay wheels: New bikes and a new name. Lyft Blog (blog). Retrieved from https://blog.lyft.com/posts/introducing-bay-wheels-new-bikes-and-a-new-name

Marshall, A. (2018, April 9). Uber acquires the bike-share company jump. WIRED. Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/story/uber-acquires-jump-bike/

Matier, P. (2019, November 17). Bikes still aren’t a preferred means of travel. Can the city change that? San Francisco Chronicle, Local Section. Retrieved from https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/philmatier/article/In-SF-bikes-still-aren-t-a-preferred-means-of-14865212.php.

Mattioli, G. (2016). Transport needs in a climate-constrained world. A novel framework to reconcile social and environmental sustainability in transport. Energy Research & Social Science, 18, 118–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2016.03.025

McKenzie, B. S. (2013). Neighborhood access to transit by race, ethnicity, and poverty in Portland, OR. City & Community, 12(2), 134–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/cico.12022

McKenzie, G. (2020). Urban mobility in the sharing economy: A spatiotemporal comparison of shared mobility services. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 79, 101418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2019.101418

McNeil, N., Dill, J. MacArthur, J. Broach, J., & Howland, S. (2017). Breaking barriers to bike share: Insights from residents of traditionally underserved neighborhoods. Portland, OR: Transportation Research and Education Center, Portland State University. Retrieved from https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1140&context=trec_reports

Médard de Chardon, C., Caruso, G., & Thomas, I. (2017). Bicycle sharing system ‘success’ determinants. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 100, 202–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2017.04.020

Moran, M. E., Laa, B., & Emberger, G. (2020). Six scooter operators, six maps: Spatial coverage and regulation of micromobility in Vienna, Austria. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 8(2), 658–671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2020.03.001

Orr, B., & Nebel, E. (2019). 2018 e-scooter findings report. Portland, OR: Portland Bureau of Transportation. Retrieved from https://www.portlandoregon.gov/transportation/article/709719.

Pender, K. (2017, June 27). Electric bike-share rides into SF, jumping ahead of Ford GoBike. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from https://www.sfchronicle.com/business/networth/article/Electric-bike-share-rides-into-SF-jumping-ahead-11250951.php

Pender, K. (2018, March 29). E-scooters descend on San Francisco sidewalks. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from https://www.sfchronicle.com/business/article/E-scooters-descend-on-San-Francisco-sidewalks-12791871.php

Pierce, G., & Shoup, D. (2013). Getting the prices right. Journal of the American Planning Association, 79(1), 67–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2013.787307

Rudick, R. (2017, July 6). SFMTA requires permit for dockless bike share. Streetsblog San Francisco (blog). Retrieved from https://sf.streetsblog.org/2017/07/06/sfmta-requires-permit-for-dockless-bike-share/

Rudick, R. (2018a, January 12). JUMP bikes cleared to launch. Streetsblog San Francisco (blog). Retrieved from https://sf.streetsblog.org/2018/01/11/san-francisco-issues-permit-for-a-non-ford-gobike-bike-share/

Rudick, R. (2018b, August 14). Advocates want bike share caps removed. Streetsblog San Francisco (blog). Retrieved from https://sf.streetsblog.org/2018/08/14/advocates-want-bike-share-caps-removed/

Russell, J. (2017, July 12). Meet mobike, a billion-dollar bike-sharing startup from China. TechCrunch (blog). Retrieved from http://social.techcrunch.com/2017/07/12/chinese-bike-sharing-startup-mobike/

Said, C., & M. Cabanatuan. (2018, June 15). Scooter firms’ SF permit applications revealed: They promise to behave. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from https://www.sfchronicle.com/business/article/The-12-scooter-companies-that-plan-to-roll-12999364.php#

Said, C. (2019, July 2). Oakland OKs 3,500 rental e-scooters from bird, lime, Lyft, clever. San Francisco Chronicle, Business Section. Retrieved from https://www.sfchronicle.com/business/article/Oakland-OKs-3-500-rental-e-scooters-from-Bird-14067377.php

Sanders, R. L., Branion-Calles, M., & Nelson, T. A. (2020). To scoot or not to scoot: Findings from a recent survey about the benefits and barriers of using e-scooters for riders and non-riders. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 139, 217–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2020.07.009

Scoot. (2018). SFMTA powered scooter share program permit application. SFMTA. Retrieved from https://www.dropbox.com/s/lvyr047detbzirw/Scoot_2018_Permit_Application.pdf?dl=0

SFMTA. (2017a). JUMP: A social bicycles project. SFMTA, stationless bikeshare program permit application v3 (p. 41). San Francisco, CA: SFMTA.

SFMTA. (2017b). Stationless bikeshare program permit application. San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. Retrieved from https://www.sfmta.com/sites/default/files/projects/2017/Bike%20Share%20Permit_v1.1_FINAL.pdf

SFMTA. (2018). Powered e-scooter share program permit application. SFMTA. Retrieved from https://www.dropbox.com/s/mb2ftrn4pvnefhd/SFMTA_Scooter_Application_2018.pdf?dl=0

SFMTA. (2019). Powered scooter share mid-pilot evaluation. San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. Retrieved from https://www.sfmta.com/sites/default/files/reports-and-documents/2019/08/powered_scooter_share_mid-pilot_evaluation_final.pdf

Shaheen, S. A., Guzman, S., & Zhang, H. (2010). Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and

Asia: Past, present, and future. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2143(1), 159–167. https://doi.org/10.3141/2143-20

Shaheen, S. A., Martin, E., Chan, N. D., Cohen, A. P., & Pogodzinski, M. (2014). Public

bikesharing in North America during a period of rapid expansion: Understanding business models, industry trends and user impacts. San Jose, CA: Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose State University. Retrieved from https://transweb.sjsu.edu/sites/default/files/1131-public-bikesharing-business-models-trends-impacts.pdf

Shaheen, S. A., & Cohen, A. (2019). Shared micromoblity policy toolkit: Docked and dockless

bike and e-scooter sharing. Berkeley, CA: Transportation Sustainability Research Center, University of California. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/00k897b5

Sherwood, K., & Murphy, J. (2014). Expanding a municipal bikeshare system into an urban national park through community partnerships: City of San Antonio, Texas, and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. Transportation Research Record, 2453(1), 54–61. https://doi.org/10.3141/2453-07

Sikka, N., Vila, C., Stratton, M., Ghassemi, M., & Pourmand, A. (2019). Sharing the sidewalk: A case of e-scooter related pedestrian injury. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 37(9), 1807.e5-1807.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2019.06.017

Skip. (2018). SFMTA powered scooter share program permit application. SFMTA. Retrieved from https://www.dropbox.com/s/klnypnt9284vgd1/Skip_2018_Permit_Application.pdf?dl=0

Smith, C. S., & Schwieterman, J. P. (2018). E-scooter scenarios: Evaluating the potential mobility benefits of shared dockless e-scooters in Chicago. Chicago: Chaddick Institute, DePaul University. Retrieved from https://las.depaul.edu/centers-and-institutes/chaddick-institute-for-metropolitan-development/research-and-publications/Documents/E-E-scooterscenariosMicroMobilityStudy_FINAL_20181212.pdf

Smith, C. S., & Schwieterman, J. P. (2019). A day in the life of Chicago’s e-scooter pilot

program. Chicago: Chaddick Institute, DePaul University. Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1SJ8MV4UgXtq2ln_mdCFTLCmUrSSHVG6I/view?ts=5d5ad61e

Somenahalli, S. V. C., Meng, L., Sleep, C., & Berry, S. (2019). Greening inner-urban travel with sharing economy mobility services: Barriers to the provision of shared mobility services. Canberra, Australia: Low Carbon Living, Department of Industry Innovation and Science. Retrieved from https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2019-06/apo-nid243941.pdf

Sulek, J. P. (2018, April 17). San Francisco impounds electric e-scooters, execs called ‘spoiled brats.’ San Jose Mercury News, California News. Retrieved from https://www.mercurynews.com/2018/04/17/san-francisco-impounds-electric-e-scooters-execs-called-spoiled-brats/

Swan, R. (2018, November 16). Mission residents decry bike-share dock as gentrification, BART agrees to move it. San Francisco Chronicle, Local Section. Retrieved from https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/Mission-residents-decry-bikeshare-station-as-13395943.php

van der Zee, R. (2016, April 16). Story of cities #30: How this Amsterdam inventor gave bike-sharing to the world. The Guardian, Cities Section. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/apr/26/story-cities-amsterdam-bike-share-scheme

Walker, J. (2008). Purpose-driven public transport: Creating a clear conversation about public transport goals. Journal of Transport Geography, 16(6), 436–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2008.06.005

Waxmann, L. (2017, July 18). Neighborhood group rejects bike share expansion to 24th street.

Mission Local (blog). Retrieved from https://missionlocal.org/2017/07/neighborhood-group-rejects-bike-share-expansion-to-24th-street/

Welch, T. F. (2013). Equity in transport: The distribution of transit access and connectivity among affordable housing units. Transport Policy, 30, 283–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2013.09.020

Wild, K., Woodward, A., Field, A., & Macmillan, A. (2018). Beyond ‘bikelash’: Engaging with community opposition to cycle lanes. Mobilities, 13(4), 505–519. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450101.2017.1408950

Winters, M., Hosford, K., & Javaheri, S. (2019). Who are the ‘super-users’ of public bike share? An analysis of public bike share members in Vancouver, BC. Preventive Medicine Reports 15 (September): 100946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100946

Wood, J., Bradley, S., & Hamidi, S. (2019). Preparing for progress: Establishing guidelines for the regulation, safe integration, and equitable usage of dockless electric scooters in American cities. Arlington, TX: Center for Transportation, Equity, Decisions and Dollars. Retrieved from https://ctedd.uta.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/wood_final.pdf

Xie, F., & Levinson, D. (2010). How streetcars shaped suburbanization: A granger causality analysis of land use and transit in the Twin Cities. Journal of Economic Geography, 10(3), 453–470. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbp031

Yanocha, D., Mason, J., Patlan, M., Benicchio, T., Alfred, I., & Laksmana, U. (2018). The bikeshare planning guide. New York: Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. Retrieved from https://itdpdotorg.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/BSPG_digital.pdf

Yurieff, K. (2018, July 2). Lyft acquires Citi Bike parent company, Motivate. CNN Money. Retrieved from https://money.cnn.com/2018/07/02/technology/lyft-bikeshare-motivate/index.html

Zavestoski, S. (2014, July 16). Bicycling and the “cyclist identity”: Understanding the “bikelash.” Retrieved from https://invisiblecyclist.com/2014/07/16/bicycling-and-the-cyclist-identity-understanding-the-bikelash/




How to Cite

Moran, M. (2021). Drawing the map: The creation and regulation of geographic constraints on shared bikes and e-scooters in San Francisco, CA. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 14(1), 197-218. https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2021.1816