Journal of Transport and Land Use 2022-07-11T01:30:54-07:00 Yingling Fan Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Transport and Land Use is the leading international journal that publishes original interdisciplinary papers on the interaction of transport and land use. The Editors welcome original submissions across the globe and from a wide range of domains, including engineering, planning, modeling, behavior, economics, geography, regional science, sociology, architecture and design, network science, and complex systems.</p> Is private-schooling problematic for transportation? Evidence from Southeast Queensland, Australia 2022-05-08T09:00:25-07:00 Yiping Yan Matthew Burke Abraham Leung James McBroom <p>School travel behaviors are associated with children’s health and well-being, traffic congestion, and sustainability. Australia has seen a steady rise in the number of car-passenger trips made by children to school, and a decline in walking-to-school. Australia differs from most nations in that it has one of the highest rates of private schooling in the world at around 34%, supported by high levels of Commonwealth Government funding. Little is known about the effects this has on travel behavior and whether it is a factor in Australia’s high rates of chauffeuring. This paper looks at journeys-toschool in South-East Queensland. Two research questions were posed: i) how do students in private and public schools travel to school, including mode shares and median trip-distances by mode?; and ii) is there any relationship between school type and mode choice, when controlling for key demographic and land use variables? Advanced geo-spatial matching allocated all trips made to schools in the 2017-2019 South East Queensland Travel Survey to either public or private schools. The resulting dataset included 2600 public school students’ trips to school and 1117 private school students’ trips to school. The public and private schools’ commuting travel behavior was then examined. Private motor vehicle is the most frequently chosen mode for travelling to school across the two groups (72.3% for public and 74.6% for private). The proportion of students walking/biking to school is 2.3 times greater for public than for private schools (16.8% versus 7.3%) even though those two groups share the same median trip distance value in active travel. For all other travel modes (automobile, public transportation and school bus), median trip distances are greater for private school students than private school students. Multinomial logistic regression modelling suggests that private school students are less likely to walk/cycle to school than public school students when controlling for key demographics and schools’ urban form characteristics. Private schools appear to disproportionately contribute to traffic congestion. Australia should consider amending its school policy frameworks to help address these concerns.</p> 2022-09-14T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yiping Yan, Matthew Burke, Abraham Leung, James McBroom City parks and slow streets: A utility-based access and equity analysis 2022-07-11T01:30:54-07:00 Gregory Macfarlane Carole Turley Voulgaris Teresa Tapia <p>During the spring and summer of 2020, cities across the world responded to the global COVID-19 pandemic by converting roadway facilities into open pedestrian spaces. These conversions improved access to public open space, but measuring the variation in that improvement among different populations requires clear definitions of access and methods for measuring it. In this study, we evaluate the change in a utility-based park accessibility measure resulting from street conversions in Alameda County, California. Our utility-based accessibility measure is constructed from a park activity location choice model we estimate using mobile device data – supplied by StreetLight Data, Inc. – representing trips to parks in that county. The estimated model reveals heterogeneity in inferred affinity for park attributes among different sociodemographic groups. We find, for example, that neighborhoods with more lower-income residents and those with more residents of color show a greater preference for park proximty while neighborhods with higher incomes and those with more white residents show a greater preference for park size and amenities. We then apply this model to examine the accessibility benefits resulting from COVID-19 street conversions to create a set of small park-like open spaces; we find that this has been a pro-social policy in that Black, Hispanic, and low-income households receive a disproportionate share of the policy benefits, relative to the population distribution.</p> 2022-09-26T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gregory Macfarlane, Carole Turley Voulgaris, Teresa Tapia Assessing pedestrian impacts of future land use and transportation scenarios 2021-12-15T18:13:34-08:00 Qin Zhang Rolf Moeckel Kelly Clifton <p>Portland Central City has experienced growth in population and employment over the last decades, which leads to an increase in travel demand. One of the visions of the Central City 2035 plan is to encourage walking. This paper presents a model of pedestrian travel demand to help assess the impact of land use and transportation policies in the Central City area. The model is an enhanced version of the Model of Pedestrian Demand (MoPeD). Realistic scenarios and the projected population and employment are incorporated in this study. Four future scenarios for 2035 are tested and compared to 2010 base conditions. The results suggest that demographic growth and job increases can help to encourage a large share of walk trips. Pedestrian behavior is also sensitive to network connectivity, but the influence is not as impactful compared to population and job growth. Furthermore, model results show that a good street network and a dense and diverse land-use plan can maximize the effects of promoting walk trips. This paper presents the capability of the pedestrian planning tool MoPeD. It is sensitive to the small-scale variations in local land use and transport development, which can help policymakers better understand the effects of various demographic policies and infrastructure planning on the walk share.</p> 2022-08-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Qin Zhang, Rolf Moeckel, Kelly Clifton Parking by the bay: The supply and implications of parking infrastructure in the San Francisco Bay Area 2022-06-12T07:30:50-07:00 Rui Li Alysha Helmrich Mikhail Chester <p>The San Francisco Bay Area is one of the most progressive transportation regions in the deployment of high-capacity transit and the use of policies to encourage active transportation. Yet, there remains a dearth of knowledge on the abundance and location of parking infrastructure. The extent and location of parking supply, including on-street and off-street spaces, are estimated for the nine-county Bay Area by creating a federated database that joins land use, transportation, parcel, building, and parking code layers to estimate the number and characteristics of parking spaces at the census block scale. This bottom-up parking space inventory results in an estimated 15 million parking spaces in the region: 8.6 million on-street and 6.4 million off-street. Residential parking dominates the share of supply at 70%, followed by commercial at 9.4%. Space density is greatest in downtown San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose—largely attributed to high-rise structures. On-street parking is dominant in the North Bay, commanding 78% of total parking in Napa, 75% in Solano, 68% in Sonoma, and 67% in Marin County. Parking area constitutes 7.9% of the total incorporated area. Notably, when compared to other southwest cities (Phoenix Metropolitan Area and Los Angeles County), the Bay Area parking supply appears better utilized considering spaces per person, per car, and per job. The density and quantity of parking spaces in the Bay Area are critical insights toward developing targeted policies that encourage active mobility and support affordable housing.</p> 2022-08-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rui Li, Alysha Helmrich, Mikhail Chester FABILUT: The Flexible Agent-Based Integrated Land Use/Transport Model 2022-01-17T21:52:18-08:00 Dominik Ziemke Nico Kuehnel Carlos Llorca Rolf Moeckel Kai Nagel <p>Integrated land-use transport models are often accused of being too complex, too coarse or too slow. We tightly couple the microscopic land use model SILO (Simple Integrated Land Use Orchestrator) with the agent-based transport simulation model MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation). The integration of the two models is person-centric. It means, firstly, that travel demand is generated microscopically. Secondly, SILO agents can query individualized travel information to search for housing or jobs (and to choose among available modes). Consequently, travel time matrices (skim matrices) are not needed anymore. Travel time queries can be done for any time of the day (instead of for one or few time periods), any x/y coordinate (instead of a limited number of zones) and take into account properties of the individual. This way, we avoid aggregation issues (e.g., large zones that disguise local differences) and we can account for individual constraints (e.g., nighttime workers who cannot commute by public transport for lack of service). Therefore, the behavior of agents is represented realistically, which allows us to simulate their reaction to novel policies (e.g., emission-class-based vehicle restrictions) and to extract system-wide effects. The model is applied in two study areas: a toy scenario and the metropolitan region of Munich. We simulate various transport and land use policies to test the model capabilities, including public transport extensions, zones restricted for private cars and land use development regulations. The results demonstrate that the increase of the model resolution and model expressiveness facilitates the simulation of such policies and the interpretation of the results.</p> 2022-08-12T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dominik Ziemke, Nico Kuehnel, Carlos Llorca, Rolf Moeckel, Kai Nagel Congested sidewalks: The effects of the built environment on e-scooter parking compliance 2021-10-17T16:28:06-07:00 Rob Hemphill John MacArthur Philip Longenecker Garima Desai Lillie Nie Abbey Ibarra Jennifer Dill <p>With the proliferation of electric scooters (e-scooters) in cities across the world, concerns continue to arise about their parking spots on sidewalks and other public spaces. Research has looked at e-scooter parking compliance and compared compliance to other mobility devices, but research has not yet examined the impacts of the built environment on parking compliance. Using a field observation dataset in Portland, Oregon, and novel GIS data, we attempt to understand the spatial distribution of e-scooter parking and the impact of built features on parking compliance, offering recommendations for policymakers and future research. The results of our study show that 76% of e-scooters observed fail at least one of the Portland’s parking compliance requirements and 59% fail at least two criteria. However, compliance varies spatially and by violation type, indicating that parking compliance (or non-compliance) is dependent on features of the built environment. Parking compliance is significantly higher on blocks with designated e-scooter parking than blocks without designated e-scooter parking. A statistically significant relationship is observed between the amount of legally parkable area on a city block and parking compliance. Parking compliance increases with larger percentages of legally parkable area. This finding can help policymakers prioritize dedicated e-scooter parking for blocks with limited legally parkable area.</p> 2022-08-12T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rob Hemphill, John MacArthur, Philip Longenecker, Garima Desai, Lillie Nie, Abbey Ibarra, Jennifer Dill, Ph.D On the empirical association between spatial agglomeration of commercial facilities and transportation systems in Japan: A nationwide analysis 2021-07-23T05:20:46-07:00 Maya Safira Makoto Chikaraishi <p>Understanding the impact of transport systems on the spatial agglomeration of urban facilities is critical for urban and transport planning. Recent studies show three separate mechanisms, including matching, sharing, and trip chaining on the agglomeration of commercial facilities, but little is known about which of these mechanisms is dominant and how its dominance varies across transport systems. Aiming at empirically investigating the mechanisms, we first calculate a simple agglomeration index for 69 Japanese cities and then explore the association between the index and city-level characteristics (including transport) using a decision tree analysis. The results confirm that (1) cities with larger areas and higher train shares experience agglomeration, presumably through matching and/or trip chaining, while cities with smaller areas have less agglomeration despite high train shares; and (2) car-dependent cities experience agglomeration, presumably through sharing, particularly by agglomerating in their residential and roadside areas. These findings indicate that effective agglomeration forces vary across transport systems.</p> 2022-08-12T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Maya Safira, Makoto Chikaraishi Bus rapid transit impacts on land uses and development over time in Bogotá and Quito 2022-05-11T05:57:33-07:00 C. Erik Vergel-Tovar Daniel A. Rodriguez <p>Despite the worldwide popularity of bus rapid transit (BRT), empirical evidence of its effects on land uses and development remains limited. This paper examines BRT’s impacts on land use and development in Bogotá and Quito, by using a parcel-level difference-in-differences research design. We estimate a propensity score-weighted regression model of parcel development characteristics in treatment and control areas. In Bogotá, although parcels in close proximity to the BRT are subject to fewer changes in terms of development intensity (changes in built-up area) in relation to parcels in the control area, they are more likely to change uses, shifting toward commercial activities. In Quito, the results are mixed; parcels in one BRT corridor are more likely to be subject to redevelopment, but the parcels in a more recent BRT corridor are less likely to be subject to development activity in relation to parcels in the control corridor. Taken together, our results suggest that changes in land use are important but frequently overlooked impacts produced by BRT implementation. Attempts to capture value from mass transit investments should also consider the ancillary planning decisions required to allow changes in land use.</p> 2022-08-03T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 C. Erik Vergel-Tovar, Daniel A. Rodriguez University campus parking: It’s all the rage 2021-12-20T07:16:03-08:00 Hayley Wiers Robert J. Schneider <p>Transportation planners, engineers, and researchers have long lamented the highly emotional public responses generated by changes to parking policies. We know that reducing the supply and increasing the price for parking—while intended to advance sustainability and other important community goals—seems to fuel an angry response, but this knowledge is often vague and anecdotal. This study combines qualitative coding of open-ended survey responses with quantitative analyses of sociodemographic and commute characteristics using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression models to reveal a strong correlation between parking and anger among University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) campus users. Higher probabilities of anger are also positively associated with annual household incomes below $50,000, bus pass holders, and residential locations outside of the immediate UWM neighborhood. Qualitative themes from angry comments include frustrations about parking price, supply, and duration; questions about the motivations for university parking policies; and a sense of entitlement among campus users to free and inexpensive parking options. The study interprets these variables and themes together to provide insights into the complicated relationship between parking and anger and the importance of analyzing angry feedback to inform future policies.</p> 2022-07-25T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hayley Wiers, Robert J. Schneider The role of transit accessibility in influencing the activity space and non-work activity participation of different income groups 2022-05-08T09:29:17-07:00 Sui Tao Sylvia He Dick Ettema Shuli Luo <p>Improved accessibility by transit service constitutes a critical component in removing spatial barriers in daily mobility for disadvantaged groups. However, the effects of transit accessibility on the daily mobility and activity participation of different social strata remain inconclusive. This study investigates the role of transit accessibility on the activity space of three income groups in Hong Kong. The results show that the availability of transit stations and network accessibility by mass transit rail (MTR) are significantly linked to the spatial extensiveness of activity space of the higher- and medium-income commuters, while bus plays a more important role for the daily mobility of the low-income group. Concerning non-work activity participation, the low-income non-commuters appear less affected by the availability of MTR stations than the other two groups, suggesting a potentially lower ability of using MTR to carry out different daily activities. Our findings offer some in-depth insights into the possible social inequality of using transit service, thereby contributing to a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between transit accessibility and mobility in relation to economic status. Policy recommendations to alleviate transport disadvantage and improve social equity are proposed.</p> 2022-07-13T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sui Tao, Sylvia He, Dick Ettema, Shuli Luo A prototype machine learning residential land-use classifier using housing market dynamics 2021-07-29T19:27:18-07:00 Shivani Raghav Stepan Oskin Eric Miller <p>There is ample evidence of the role of land use and transportation interactions in determining urban spatial structure. The increased digitization of human activity produces a wealth of new data that can support longitudinal studies of changes in land-value distributions and integrated urban microsimulation models. To produce a comprehensive dataset, information from various sources needs to be merged at the land-parcel level to enhance datasets with additional attributes, while maintaining the ease of data storage and retrieval and respecting spatial and temporal relationships. This paper proposes a prototype of a workflow to augment a historical dataset of real estate transactions with data from multiple urban sources and to use machine learning to classify land use of each record based on housing market dynamics. The study finds that engineered parcel-level attributes, capturing housing market dynamics, have stronger predictive power than aggregated socio-economic variables, for classifying property land use.</p> 2022-07-06T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shivani Raghav, Stepan Oskin, Eric J. Miller Assessing urban vitality and its determinants in high-speed rail station areas in the Yangtze River Delta, China 2022-02-13T18:36:56-08:00 Lei Wang Wei Zheng Sanwei He Sheng Wei <p>Unlike most city centers in countries that pioneer European high-speed rail (HSR) lines, HSR stations in China have mainly been developed in suburban areas. The rationale for peripherally located HSR stations is due to development costs and intentions to speed up urbanization and develop new suburbs. However, it remains unknown whether the HSR-led urban development policy is effective as intended, despite the rise of HSR area suburbs. Taking the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) as an example, this study assesses HSR station area urban vitality (SAUV). It constructs an indicator system comprised of concentration, accessibility, liveability, and diversity of physical facilities and socioeconomic activities. It compares the rank-size distribution of urban vitality in different station types: conventional rail (CR), upgraded-HSR, and newly built HSR stations. The spatial differentiation and influence factors of SAUV in the YRD are further examined among cities and provinces of different station types and HSR lines. The results show that station areas with high urban vitality are mainly distributed along major economic corridors. Only a few newly built HSR stations could attract vibrant urban activities. More vibrant economic activities could be clustered in HSR station areas in provincial-level cities and along the Shanghai-Nanjing HSR line. Although the SAUV value is strongly associated with local socioeconomic contexts, it is significantly influenced by the administrative rank of cities, station-city transit connectivity, and frequency of train services. This study suggests that integrating multilevel spatial planning with vitality-led urban development is necessary for the sustainability of the HSR economy.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lei Wang, Wei Zheng, Sanwei He, Sheng Wei Land-use patterns, location choice, and travel behavior: Evidence from São Paulo 2021-11-29T18:17:08-08:00 João de Abreu e Silva Shanna Lucchesi <p>Global South cities are vastly underrepresented in the literature that analyzes the relationships between location choice, land-use patterns and travel behavior. This paper aims to reduce that underrepresentation by bringing new evidence from a metropolitan region in the Global South. We estimate a Structural Equation Model to study the relationships between land-use patterns, location choice, car ownership and travel behavior, while controlling for self-selection, in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. The model structure is adapted from previous applications to include variables related with specific aspects of the studied region, with the inclusion of informal work and people working two jobs, while simultaneously controlling for cohort effects associated with being a millennial. The results support the claim that land-use patterns influence travel behavior, even in a metropolitan area showing strong income-based spatial segregation levels. More specifically, commuting distance and car ownership act as important mediators in the relationships between the total amount of travel by mode and land-use patterns. In contrast to previous applications of this model framework, income plays a stronger role, an indication of relevant income-based residential sorting. Cohort effects are also visible, as millennials prefer to live in central, accessible, and mixed areas, own fewer cars, travel less by car, and use public transit and non-motorized modes more frequently.</p> 2022-06-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 João de Abreu e Silva, Shanna Lucchesi Socio-cultural characteristics of people and the shape of transit-oriented development (TOD) in Indonesia: A mobility culture perspective 2021-09-06T16:32:07-07:00 Hayati Sari Hasibuan Chrisna T Permana <p>Recent literature argues that many transit-oriented development (TOD) projects have failed because their approaches focus on “one-size-fits-all” technical provisions and/or pay little attention to local socio-cultural suitability. Through a sociological institutionalism lens, this article examines how the local socio-cultural characteristics of people reshape mobility culture in transit areas and lead to the potential emergence of locally based TOD concepts. Our discussions are guided by the socio-cultural mobility analysis framework, an extended version of the original mobility culture theory. This analytical framework divides mobility culture into land use, housing, and transport dimensions. Five TOD potential areas located in the periphery of Greater Jakarta, Indonesia, are presented as a research window in which data and information are collected through a mixture of primary surveys and documentary reviews. This article reveals that housing preference emerges as the most important aspect of reshaping mobility culture in transit areas in Indonesia.</p> 2022-05-30T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hayati Sari Hasibuan, Chrisna T Permana The inevitability of automobility: How private car use is perpetuated in a greenfield housing estate 2021-11-29T10:44:50-08:00 Jennifer L. Kent <p>Ongoing advances in technologies of connectivity have strengthened our capacity to envision urban environments less dominated by private car use. Yet many cities remain attached to, and defined by, the automobile. In challenging this status quo, we must understand the complex and varied ways private car use is reinforced in different urban environments. This paper provides such an understanding in the context of a low-density, and currently car-dependent, city. It presents a detailed analysis of the system of automobility to demonstrate the way private-car use is unintentionally perpetuated through contemporary practices of planning, developing and inhabiting cities. A newly constructed suburb in Sydney, Australia, provides the case for analysis. The suburb—Oran Park—is a master-planned estate intentionally designed to encourage alternative transport modes that is rendered ostensibly car-dependent as a result of a confluence of historical and contemporary structural and practical influences. The paper combines a detailed examination of the planning, transport and land-use context of the suburb with survey data from 300 of its residents. The paper’s novel contribution is to analyze these data sources using a social practice approach. The analysis lays bare the inevitability of automobility’s reproduction in the estate—describing the litany of elements that are both infrastructural and cultural and that, in orchestration, reproduce private car use. These elements are deconstructed to inform future challenges to the hegemony of the private car.</p> 2022-04-26T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jennifer L. Kent Planning for cycling in local government: Insights from national surveys in Australia and New Zealand 2021-09-17T13:56:41-07:00 Courtney Babb Sam McLeod Conor Noone <p>Despite a broad consensus that cycling can address a range of transportation issues, many countries have struggled to institute measures to increase cycling participation. Even for cities that have achieved marked progress, there remains a gap in making cycling a truly normative mode of transportation. The practical problem of translating research and converting policy vision into broad-based cycling participation has become an increasingly central focus of international cycling scholarship. To examine the challenges of practically planning for cycling, we focus on the role of local government and report on a survey of all urban and major regional local governments in Australia and New Zealand. By analyzing results across the two countries, we diagnose challenges faced by practitioners in implementing measures to support cycling. Key findings suggest there is support among local government officers and stakeholders for cycling to play an increased role in daily transportation, yet this support is much more mixed at the implementation stage of cycling plans, policies, and infrastructure projects. These findings indicate a pressing need to better equip local government practitioners with tools and knowledge to overcome barriers to providing for cycling, particularly in increasingly politicized and complex contexts.</p> 2022-04-15T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Courtney Babb, Sam McLeod, Conor Noone Analyzing the association between satisfaction with commuting time and satisfaction with life domains: A comparison of 32 European countries 2022-01-17T21:44:53-08:00 Richa Maheshwari Veronique Van Acker Jonas De Vos Frank Witlox <p>Although the majority of literature explains travel satisfaction by examining trip determinants, the interaction between travel satisfaction and satisfaction with other life domains has been analyzed less frequently. Accounting for satisfaction with other life domains is nevertheless important because the effect of trip characteristics on travel satisfaction may be overestimated without considering satisfaction with non-travel-related life domains. Hence, this paper examines the interaction between satisfaction with commuting time, satisfaction with other life domains and overall life satisfaction. An ordered logistic regression has been estimated using a large dataset comprising data from 32 European countries. Results indicate that satisfaction with specific life domains and overall life satisfaction have a significant association with commuting time satisfaction (CTS), while controlling for employment characteristics, and personality (i.e., trust). Of all life domains, job and time-use satisfaction have the strongest associations with CTS. Given the large dataset, we controlled for the contextual differences between the European countries by making a distinction between well- and less-developed countries. The result seems to suggest that all life domains and employment characteristics better explain CTS in well-developed countries than less-developed countries. This paper thus contributes to reporting other innovative ways to obtain high levels of commuting time satisfaction rather than only looking at the interactions with transport mode, travel distance and travel time.</p> 2022-03-21T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Richa Maheshwari, Veronique Van Acker, Jonas De Vos, Frank Witlox Mapping opportunity in time and space: An inductive approach 2021-09-23T07:18:05-07:00 David Hoelzel Joachim Scheiner <p>Several authors delineate “geographies of opportunity,” which are assumed to influence individual life courses. In transport geography and related subjects, “opportunity” is a term that is frequently used to circumscribe dynamics of spatial and social mobility. However, previous approaches to opportunity usually apply deductive reasoning in such a way that opportunity represents a local feature whose functional utility impacts individual lives. Such approaches are inadequate for the analysis of individual life courses, as neither the emergence of opportunity nor its meaning for individual motives is sufficiently incorporated. Such neglect may lead to insufficient or even incorrect conclusions about the relation of space, mobility and the life course, because a concept for systematic mappings of opportunities in both individual life courses and space has not yet been developed. This paper aims to reconceptualize opportunity as a personally and socially experienced interrelation between agents and their socio-spatial environment with beneficial outcomes for the respective life courses. With regard to mapping opportunity, pockets of local order and occasions are presented as mappable spatiotemporal entities. Occasions are sections in timespace, which are unique and meaningful to the development of the individual life course. Finally, we discuss implications for empirical application, future research, planning and policy.</p> 2022-03-20T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 David J. Hoelzel, Joachim Scheiner Not enough parking, you say? A study of garage use and parking supply for single-family homes in Sacramento and implications for ADUs 2021-11-20T12:53:45-08:00 Jamey Volker Calvin Thigpen <p>Accessory dwelling units (ADUs) are increasingly touted as part of the solution to the intransigent housing shortages facing many metropolitan areas across the United States. But numerous barriers to ADU development persist, including opposition by neighboring households. One persistent question is whether ADU residents would overwhelm on-street parking in the predominately single-family neighborhoods where ADUs are typically built. That question is difficult to answer because there is a surprising dearth of research on the effective parking supply in single-family neighborhoods. We use a survey of homeowners in Sacramento, California, to investigate the supply and sufficiency of residential parking for single-family homes, including how households actually use their garages, and help answer the ADU parking conundrum. After estimating and accounting for actual garage use, we find that more than 75% of households have enough off-street parking available to park all their vehicles. When we combine off-street and on-street parking supplies, we find that households have an average of 1.6 more parking spaces available to them than they have vehicles. That parking surplus is more than enough to accommodate the average ADU tenant and their vehicle, belying claims that ADUs will overwhelm existing parking supplies in single-family neighborhoods.</p> 2022-02-25T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jamey M. B. Volker, Calvin G. Thigpen What the heck is a choice rider? A theoretical framework and empirical model 2021-10-16T08:43:24-07:00 Erick Guerra <p>As local, state, and federal agencies began investing substantial resources into subsidizing transit in the 1960s and ‘70s, public documents argued that transit agencies should focus on attracting choice riders instead of dependent riders, who have no alternatives and use transit regardless of service quality. After six decades, the definitions, uses, and implications of the terms choice and dependent rider have remained consistent in the academic and professional literature. These definitions, however, lack a strong theoretical grounding or empirical evidence to support them. Using travel diary data from the Philadelphia region, I estimate discrete choice models to identify choice riders, who I define as those who have close to a 50% probability of choosing between a car or transit for a given trip. The Philadelphia region, which has a diverse range of transit users and transit services, is an ideal place to develop and fit an empirical model of choice ridership. Attributes assumed to be associated with dependent riders, such as lack of a car, low income, and being a racial or ethnic minority, are much more prevalent among choice riders than the general metropolitan population. Choice riders are also diverse, with a mix of racial backgrounds, income levels, educational attainment, and access to private cars. Transit dependency, by contrast, is rare. The lowest and highest income residents generally only choose transit when service quality is high, and transit is cost and time competitive with the car.</p> 2022-02-25T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Erick Guerra Traffic-land use compatibility and street design impacts of automated driving in Vienna, Austria 2021-09-12T05:20:26-07:00 Emilia Bruck Aggelos Soteropoulos <p>The potential rise of automated vehicles (AVs) may significantly impact future traffic volumes, in turn affecting urban street designs and adjacent land use. While integrated studies on potential traffic and land-use changes due to AVs largely concern issues of location choice and changing settlement patterns, assessments of how AVs may influence the quality of streets depending on the requirements of adjacent land use remain scarce. This paper presents an integrated assessment of the urban effect of AVs on traffic and neighborhoods in Vienna. It provides a methodology to assess whether changing traffic volumes are compatible with the land use of a given neighborhood to approximate street space requirements for shared automated shuttles and to visualize possible trajectories of spatial transformation by considering local development goals. The results show that the opportunities to convert street space and the risks of environmental harm due to AVs will vary across neighborhoods and street typologies. It is crucial for policymakers and planners to consider such contextual differences to gain better insight into the functional requirements and urban consequences of AVs. This assessment aims to shed light on the possible trade-offs of a system change in favor of AVs to help evaluate adequate operational conditions and inform proactive traffic and urban design policies to harness possible implications.</p> 2022-02-20T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Emilia Bruck, Aggelos Soteropoulos Car dependency beyond land use: Can a standardized built environment indicator predict car use? 2021-11-29T10:44:22-08:00 Eva Van Eenoo Koos Fransen Kobe Boussauw <p>In June 2019, the government of the Flemish Region (Belgium) launched the “mobility score,” a standardized built environment indicator that informs citizens in Flanders about the walking or cycling accessibility from their dwelling to a range of basic amenities and public transport stops. The development of the mobility score was developed to be a tool to raise awareness of the environmental impact of travel. Against this backdrop, this paper assesses the extent to which the mobility score can predict car use and aims to contribute to the line of research that studies travel patterns in relation to accessibility, spatial context, and travel mode choice. Based on the data from the Flemish Travel Behavior Survey, we analyze the effect of the interaction between the built environment, frequency of car use and vehicle kilometers traveled. Our findings illustrate that frequent and intensive car use is not an exclusive feature of suburban and rural residents in Flanders, or of those who travel long distances. The outcomes show that the mobility score can predict the frequency of car travel but only in the inner city. As for other areas, travel behavior shows little variance among respondents. The presence of a company car in a household is a much stronger predictor of vehicle kilometers traveled than any other variable, including the built environment. Travel behavior turns toward car use once a household acquires a car, almost regardless of the type of neighborhoods where respondents live. In Flanders, policy has so far been directed more toward curbing car use than discouraging car ownership. Our findings suggest that it could be more effective to aim for the latter, as this prevents the development of a cycle of car-oriented behavior in the first place.</p> 2022-02-20T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eva Van Eenoo, Koos Fransen, Kobe Boussauw Calculating place-based transit accessibility: Methods, tools and algorithmic dependence 2021-07-14T11:28:15-07:00 Christopher Higgins Matthew Palm Amber DeJohn Luna Xi James Vaughan Steven Farber Michael Widener Eric Miller <p>To capture the complex relationships between transportation and land use, researchers and practitioners are increasingly using place-based measures of transportation accessibility to support a broad range of planning goals. This research reviews the state-of-the-art in applied transportation accessibility measurement and performs a comparative evaluation of software tools for calculating accessibility by walking and public transit including ArcGIS Pro, Emme, R5R, and OpenTripPlanner using R and Python, among others. Using a case study of Toronto, we specify both origin-based and regional-scale analysis scenarios and find significant differences in computation time and calculated accessibilities. While the calculated travel time matrices are highly correlated across tools, each tool produces different results for the same origin-destination pair. Comparisons of the estimated accessibilities also reveal evidence of spatial clustering in the ways paths are calculated by some tools relative to others at different locations around the city. With the growing emphasis on accessibility-based planning, analysts should approach the calculation of accessibility with care and recognize the potential for algorithmic dependence in their calculated accessibility results.</p> 2022-02-01T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Christopher Higgins, Matthew Palm, Amber DeJohn, Luna Xi, James Vaughan, Steven Farber, Michael Widener, Eric Miller Dockless bike-sharing’s impact on mode substitution and influential factors: Evidence from Beijing, China 2021-09-23T07:15:58-07:00 Zheyan Chen Dea van Lierop Dick Ettema <p>As a newly emerged bike-sharing system, dockless bike-sharing has the potential to positively influence urban mobility by encouraging active cycling and drawing users from car, public transit and walking. However, scant empirical research explores the extent to which dockless bike-sharing replaces other travel modes for different travel purposes. There is a lack of knowledge about how dockless bike-sharing users’ personal characteristics and neighborhood environment features influence their mode substitution behaviors. Using survey data collected from residents in Beijing and geodata of land use and public transit, we conduct four multinomial logistic models to explore potential mode-substitution behaviors influenced by dockless bike-sharing for four travel purposes: work or education commuting, sports and leisure, grocery shopping, and recreational activities such as shopping, eating and drinking. The results indicate that, for the majority of respondents, dockless bike-sharing systems potentially substitute for walking or public transit. In addition, our analysis of travel attitudes points out that dockless bike-sharing not only attracts bicycle lovers but also users with a preference or positive attitude toward other travel modes. The positive association between the length of bicycle paths and the likelihood of potentially replacing public transit or motorized vehicles by dockless bike-sharing also reveals that the cycling infrastructure of residential neighborhood could be an important facilitator for users of public transit and motorized vehicles to switch to dockless bike-sharing systems.</p> 2022-02-01T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Zheyan Chen, Dea van Lierop, Dick Ettema Spatial mismatch for distinct socioeconomic groups in Xiamen, China 2021-04-12T04:34:31-07:00 Yongling Li Stan Geertman Yanliu Lin Pieter Hooimeijer Wangtu Xu Jie Huang <p>Studies have found that spatial mismatch is a universal phenomenon, although both their substantive and methodological focus can differ substantially. In China, there is a growing body of literature on spatial mismatch, but few studies have measured the degree of spatial mismatch between local and migrant workers in different occupations. To fill this gap, this research investigates the spatial mismatch for different socioeconomic groups in Xiamen according to their “hukou” status and occupation. As one of the country’s first four special economic zones, Xiamen achieved housing marketization earlier than most other Chinese cities, attracting a large amount of capital and migrants, and shaping different spatial patterns of local workers and migrant workers. The findings show that blue-collar, pink-collar, and white-collar workers, who are further categorized as either locals or migrants, experience varying degrees of job accessibility and spatial mismatch. In addition, even though migrant workers experience less spatial mismatch, they still have disadvantages in terms of commuting time due to their travel mode. The results presented in this paper are helpful for understanding the spatial mismatch for various social groups and facilitating sustainable mobility and social equity.</p> 2022-01-24T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yongling Li, Stan Geertman, Yanliu Lin, Pieter Hooimeijer, Wangtu Xu, Jie Huang Whose express access? Assessing the equity implications of bus express routes in Montreal, Canada 2021-05-20T06:36:16-07:00 James DeWeese Manuel Santana Palacios Anastasia Belikow Ahmed El-Geneidy <p>Express buses—characterized by limited stops and sometimes higher frequencies or priority traffic measures—offer a cost-effective and efficient way to boost service convenience and reliability for riders. This paper assesses how the accessibility benefits of express bus route policy are distributed in Montreal, Canada, while providing a pathway for public transportation agencies to assess their policies and plans. To isolate the impact of bus express routes, we use General Transit Speed Specification (GTFS) data, the Open Trip Planner multimodal routing engine, and the 2013 edition of Montreal’s origin-destination survey to contrast travel time and accessibility at the trip and census-tract levels under two scenarios: one with the existing, complete network and the second a counterfactual scenario with no express bus routes. Our results indicate that bus express routes enable an overall increase in accessibility for the overall population. However, the accessibility benefits do not accrue evenly, as expected, but also tend to benefit a more significant number of higher incomes. This occurs despite the location of low-income populations in some outlying areas of the city, which express bus routes are supposed to serve. This paper closes with policy recommendations that help planners balance economic, environmental, and equity goals, perhaps one of the most complex challenges they face nowadays.</p> 2022-01-24T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 James DeWeese, Manuel Santana Palacios, Anastasia Belikow, Ahmed El-Geneidy Which dots to connect? Employment centers and commuting inequalities in Bogotá 2021-10-20T15:14:35-07:00 Javier Peña Luis A, Guzman Julian Arellana <p>Accessibility and equality evaluations have been primarily focused on residential location. However, workplace location might be an equivalent contributor to inequalities in the travel experience and accessibility. Traditionally, transport planning connects high-demand areas with the best-quality and capacity transport infrastructures. Literature supports that employment centers (EC) receive mainly workers in certain middle-to high-income occupations. This condition results in a type of segregation pattern associated with trip destinations and modal choice similar to those reported for the household location. This paper investigates commuting from a different standpoint, emphasizing the need to consider workplace location and employment distribution within cities. We identify five main EC in Bogotá, Colombia, and explore their association with the commuting mode choice of three population groups using mixed logit models. Results indicate that people who work in any EC tend to use more public transport (PT). Nevertheless, the probability of selecting PT differs among groups. Specifically, for low-income commuters, PT represents lower utility than that for middle-income commuters if their job is located in an EC. The fact that the population most likely to be public transport captive does not find this alternative as attractive as the middle-income segment needs further investigation for better policymaking.</p> 2022-01-24T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Javier Peña, Luis A, Guzman, Julian Arellana Modal equity of accessibility to healthcare in Recife, Brazil 2021-10-07T13:57:43-07:00 Boer Cui Genevieve Boisjoly Bernardo Serra Ahmed El-Geneidy <p>In the context of increasing urbanization and income inequality, transport professionals in the Global South need to be prepared to effectively plan for the needs of various groups within the population, particularly for those regarding health and well-being. Accessibility is widely used as a performance measure for land use and transport systems; it measures people’s ease of reaching desired destinations and incorporates mode, time, and/or cost constraints. Considerable differences exist in the level of accessibility experienced by different mode users in reaching healthcare facilities, which calls for additional equity considerations given the prevailing socio-demographic characteristics of the users of various modes and the importance of healthcare facilities as a destination. In this study, we explore the distribution of accessibility to healthcare facilities by public transport and by car in Recife, Brazil, through an equity assessment to identify areas with low accessibility using these modes at different times of day. In general, the higher accessibility of public transport as well as greater modal equity was observed in central regions of Recife, whereas the periphery, where many low-income census tracts can be found, experiences significant inequity when it comes to access by both modes to healthcare facilities. This analysis allowed us to classify locations to access impoverished, access absolutely impoverished, and access impoverished by public transport areas, which can be targeted with appropriate land use and public transport policy interventions. This paper can be of value to professionals and researchers working toward equitable land use and transport systems in the Global South.</p> 2022-01-24T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Boer Cui, Genevieve Boisjoly, Bernardo Serra, Ahmed El-Geneidy