Heterogeneity in the relationship between biking and the built environment
AbstractBicycling is an environmentally friendly, healthy, and affordable mode of transportation that is viable for short-distance trips. Urban planners, public health advocates, and others are therefore looking for strategies to promote more bicycling, including improvements to the built environment that make bicycling more attractive. This study presents an analysis of how key built environment characteristics relate to bicycling frequency based on a large sample from the 2012 California Household Travel Survey (California Department of Transportation, 2012) and detailed built environment data. The built environment characteristics we explore include residential and intersection density at anchor locations (home, work, school), green space, job access, land-use mix, and bicycle infrastructure availability. Analyses are conducted separately for three distinct demographic groups: school-age children, employed adults, and adults who are not employed. The key conclusion from this work is that the relationship between bicycling and some built environment characteristics varies between types of people — most dramatically between adults and children. To develop targeted policies with scarce resources, local policymakers need specific guidance as to which investments and policy changes will be most effective for creating “bikeable” neighborhoods. Our work indicates that the answer depends — at least in part — on who these bikeable neighborhoods are meant to serve.
Beenackers, M. A., Foster, S., Kamphuis, C. B. M., Titze, S., Divitini, M., Knuiman, M., van Lenthe, F., & Giles-Corti, B. (2012). Taking up cycling after residential relocation: Built environment factors. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(6), 610-615. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.02.021
Brilleman, S. (2011). DEVR2: Stata module to compute Cameron and Windmeijer's deviance based R-squared measure, Statistical Software Components S457340, Boston College Department of Economics, revised Oct. 15, 2011. Retrieved from https://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s457340.html
Buehler, T., & Handy, S. L. (2008). Fifty years of bicycle policy in Davis, California. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2074, 52–57. doi:10.3141/2074-07
Buliung, R. N., Larsen, K., Hess, P., Faulkner, G., Fusco, C., & Rothman, L. (2014). Driven to school: Social fears and traffic environments. In A. Walks (Ed), The urban political economy and ecology of automobility: Driving cities, driving inequality, driving politics (pp. 81–100). London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315766188
California Department of Transportation. (2012). 2010–2012 California Household Transportation Survey (CHTS). Retrieved from https://catalog.data.gov/dataset/california-household-transportation-survey
Calthorpe Associates. (2012). Urban footprint technical summary. Retrieved from http://www.calthorpe.com/files/UrbanFootprint%20Technical%20Summary%20-%20July%202012.pdf
Cameron, A. C., & Windmeijer, F. A. (1997). An R-squared measure of goodness of fit for some common nonlinear regression models. Journal of Econometrics, 77(2), 329–342. doi:10.1016/S0304-4076(96)01818-0
Carlson, J. A., Saelens, B. E., Kerr, J., Schipperijn, J., Conway, T. L., Frank, L. D., … & Sallis, J. F. (2015). Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents. Health & Place, 32, 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.12.008
Cervero, R., & Duncan, M. (2003). Walking, bicycling, and urban landscapes: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1478–1483. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1478
Cervero, R., Sarmiento, O. L., Jacoby, E., Gomez, L. F., & Neiman, A. (2009). Influences of built environments on walking and cycling: Lessons from Bogotá. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 3, 203–226. doi:10.1080/15568310802178314
Conrow, L. (2018). Factors that influence bicycling activity density in Sydney using varied crowdsourced activity datasets. In Understanding mobility and active transportation in urban areas through crowdsourced movement data (Doctoral dissertation). Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. Retrieved from https://repository.asu.edu/items/49204
Cui, Y., Mishra, S., & Welch, T. F. (2014). Land use effects on bicycle ridership: A framework for state planning agencies. Journal of Transport Geography, 41, 220–228. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2014.10.004
Damant-Sirois, G., & El-Geneidy, A. M. (2015). Who cycles more? Determining cycling frequency through a segmentation approach in Montreal, Canada. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77, 113–125. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2015.03.028.
De Meester, F., Van Dyck, D., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Deforche, B., Sallis, J. F., & Cardon, G. (2012). Active living neighborhoods: Is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents? BMC Public Health, 12(7). doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-7
Dill, J., & Carr, T. (2003). Bicycle commuting and facilities in major U.S. cities: If you build them, commuters will use them. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1828, 116–123. doi:10.3141/1828-14
Dill, J., & McNeil, N. (2013). Four types of cyclists? Examination of typology for better understanding of bicycling behavior and potential. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2387, 129–138. doi:10.3141/2387-15
Ducheyne, F., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Lenoir, M., Spittaels, H., & Cardon, G. (2013). Children’s cycling skills: Development of a test and determination of individual and environmental correlates. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 688–697. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2012.06.021
Ewing, R., Schroeer, W., & Greene, W. (2004). School location and student travel: Analysis of factors affecting mode choice. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1895, 55–63. doi:10.3141/1895-08
Fitch, D. T., Thigpen, C. G., & Handy, S. L. (2016). Traffic stress and bicycling to elementary and junior high school: Evidence from Davis, California. Journal of Transport and Health, 3(4), 457–466. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2016.01.007
Frank, L. D., Bradley, M., Kavage, S., Chapman, J., & Lawton, T. K. (2008). Urban form, travel time, and cost relationships with tour complexity and mode choice. Transportation, 35, 37–54. doi:10.1007/s11116-007-9136-6
Furth, P. G. (2012). Bicycling infrastructure for mass cycling. In J. Pucher & R. Buehler (Eds.), City cycling (pp. 105–139). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Garrard, J., Handy, S. L., & Dill, J. (2012). Women and cycling. In J. Pucher & R. Buehler (Eds.), City cycling (pp. 211–234). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Handy S. L., Boarnet, M. G., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. E. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity. Views from urban planning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(2S), 64–73. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00475-0
Handy, S. L., Xing, Y., & Buehler, T. J. (2010). Factors associated with bicycle ownership and use: A study of six small U.S. cities. Transportation, 37(6), 967–985. doi:10.1007/s11116-010-9269-x
Krizek, K. J., & Johnson, P. J. (2006). Proximity to trails and retail: Effects on urban cycling and walking. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 33–42. doi:10.1080/01944360608976722
Ladrón de Guevara, F., Washington, S., & Oh, J. (2004). Forecasting crashes at the planning level: Simultaneous negative binomial crash model applied in Tucson, Arizona. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1897, 191–99. doi:10.3141/1897-25
Larsen, K., Gilliland, J., Hess, P., Tucker, P., Irwin, J., & He, M. (2009). The influence of the physical environment and sociodemographic characteristics on children’s mode of travel to and from school. American Journal of Public Health, 99(3), 520–526. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.135319
Ma, L. & Dill, J. (2015). Association between the objective and perceived built environment and bicycling for transportation. Journal of Transport and Health, 2, 248-255. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2015.03.002
Mitra, R., & Nash, S. (2018). Can the built environment explain gender gap in cycling? An exploration of university students’ travel behavior in Toronto, Canada. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. doi:10.1080/15568318.2018.1449919
Moran, M. R., Plaut, P., & Baron-Epel, O. (2016). Do children walk where they bike? Exploring built environment correlates of children's walking and bicycling. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 9(2), 1–23. doi: 10.5198/jtlu.2015.556
Moudon, A. V., Lee, C., Cheadle, A. D., Collier, C. W., Johnson, D., Schmid, T. L., & Weather, R. D. (2005). Cycling and the built environment, a US perspective. Transportation Research Part D, 10, 245–261. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2005.04.001
Parkin, J., Wardman, M., & Page, M. (2007). Estimation of the determinants of bicycle mode share for the journey to work using census data. Transportation, 35(1), 93–109. doi:10.1007/s11116-007-9137-5
Pikora ,T., Giles-Corti, B., Bull, F., Jamrozik, K., & Donovan, R. (2003). Developing a framework for assessment of the environmental determinants of walking and cycling. Social Science & Medicine, 56, 1673–1703. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00163-6
Pucher, J., & Buehler, R. (2008). Making cycling irresistible: Lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Transport Reviews, 28(4), 495–528. doi:10.1080/01441640701806612
Pucher, J., Buehler, R., Merom, D., & Bauman, A. (2011). Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001–2009: Evidence from the national household travel surveys. American Journal of Public Health, 101(S1): S310–17. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.300067
Pucher, J., Dill, J., & Handy, S. (2010). Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review. Preventive Medicine, 50, S106–S125. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.07.028
Rosenberg, D., Ding, D., Sallis, J. F., Kerr, J., Norman, G. J., Durant, N., … Saelens, B. E. (2009). Neighborhood environment walkability scale for youth (NEWS-Y): Reliability and relationship with physical activity. Preventive Medicine, 49, 213–218. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.07.011
Salon, D. (2016). Estimating pedestrian and cyclist activity at the neighborhood scale. Journal of Transport Geography, 55, 11–21. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.06.023
Solon, G., Haider, S. J., & Wooldridge, J. M. (2015). What are we weighting for? Journal of Human Resources, 50(2), 301–316. doi:10.3368/jhr.50.2.301
Thigpen, C. G. (2017). The reciprocal relationship between children and young adults’ travel behavior and their travel attitudes, skills, and norms (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://ncst.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Thigpen_Thesis_Full_FINAL.pdf
Titze, S., Stronegger, W. J., Janschitz, S., & Oja, P. (2008). Association of built-environment, social-environment and personal factors with bicycling as a mode of transportation among Austrian city dwellers. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 47, 252–259. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.02.019
Trapp, G., Giles-Corti, B., Christian, H., Bulsara, M., Timperio, A., McCormack, G., & Villaneuva, K. (2011). On your bike! A cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 1–10. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-123
U.S. Census Bureau. (2014). American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). LEHD Origin-destination employment statistics (LODES) data. Retrieved from http://lehd.ces.census.gov/data/
Van Dyck, D., Cardon, G., Deforche, B., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2009a). Lower neighborhood walkability and longer distance to school are related to physical activity in Belgian adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 48(6), 516–518. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.03.005
Van Dyck, D., Deforche, B., Cardon, G., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2009b). Neighborhood walkability and its particular importance for adults with a preference for passive transport. Health & Place, 15(2), 496–504. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.08.010
Van Lierop, D., Grismsrud, M., & El-Geneidy, A. (2015). Breaking into bicycle theft: Insights from Montreal, Canada. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 9(7), 490–501. doi:10.1080/15568318.2013.811332
Washington, S., Karlaftis, M., & Mannering, F. (2011). Statistical and econometric methods for transportation data analysis, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Wendel-Vos, G. C. W., Schuit, A. J., de Niet, R., Boshuizen, H. C., Saris, W. H. M., & Kromhout, D. (2004). Factors of the physical environment associated with walking and bicycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(4), 725–730. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000121955.03461.0A
Willis, D. P., Manaugh, K., & El-Geneidy, A. (2015). Cycling under influence: Summarizing the influence of perceptions, attitudes, habits, and social environments on cycling for transportation. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 9(8), 565–579. doi:10.1080/15568318.2013.827285
Winters, M., Brauer, M., Setton, E. M., & Teschke, K. (2010). Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: Bicycling versus driving. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 87(6), 969–993. doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9509-6
Wong, B., Faulkner, G., & Buliung, R. (2011). GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 1–22. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-39
Zhao, P. (2014). The impact of the built environment on bicycle commuting: Evidence from Beijing. Urban Studies, 51(5), 1019–1037. doi:10.1177/0042098013494423
Copyright (c) 2019 Deborah Salon, Matthew Wigginton Conway, Kailai Wang, Nathaniel Roth
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with JTLU agree to the following terms: 1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.