Understanding autonomous vehicles: A systematic literature review on capability, impact, planning and policy

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, smart urban mobility, smart cities, technology disruption, urban and transport policy

Abstract

Advancement in automated driving technology has created opportunities for smart urban mobility. Automated vehicles are now a popular topic with the rise of the smart city agenda. However, legislators, urban administrators, policymakers, and planners are unprepared to deal with the possible disruption of autonomous vehicles, which potentially could replace conventional transport. There is a lack of knowledge on how the new capabilities will disrupt and which policy strategies are needed to address such disruption. This paper aims to determine where we are, where we are headed, what the likely impacts of a wider uptake could be, and what needs to be done to generate desired smart urban mobility outcomes. The methodology includes a systematic review of the existing evidence base to understand capability, impact, planning, and policy issues associated with autonomous vehicles. The review reveals the trajectories of technological development, disruptive effects caused by such development, strategies to address the disruptions, and possible gaps in the literature. The paper develops a framework outlining the inter-links among driving forces, uptake factors, impacts and possible interventions. It concludes by advocating the necessity of preparing our cities for autonomous vehicles, although a wider uptake may take quite some time.

References

Altche, F., Qian, X., & De La Fortelle, A. (2017). An algorithm for supervised driving of cooperative semi-autonomous vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 18, 3527–3539.

Anderson, J. M., Nidhi, K., Stanley, K. D., Sorensen, P., Samaras, C., & Oluwatola, O. A. (2014). Autonomous vehicle technology. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp.

Arbolino, R., Carlucci, F., Cira, A., Ioppolo, G., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2017). Efficiency of the EU regulation on greenhouse gas emissions in Italy. Ecological Indicators, 81, 115–123.

Arnaout, G., & Arnaout, J. P. (2014). Exploring the effects of cooperative adaptive cruise control on highway traffic flow using microscopic traffic simulation. Transportation Planning and Technology, 37, 186–199.

Bagloee, S. A., Tavana, M., Asadi, M., & Oliver, T. (2016). Autonomous vehicles. Journal of Modern Transportation, 24, 284–303.

Bai, W., Quan, J., Fu, L., Gan, X., & Wang, X. (2017). Online fair allocation in autonomous vehicle sharing. In GLOBECOM 2017-2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference (pp. 1-6), Singapore.

Banister, D. (1997). Reducing the need to travel. Environment and Planning B, 24, 437–449.

Bansal, P., & Kockelman, K. M. (2017). Forecasting Americans’ long-term adoption of connected and autonomous vehicle technologies. Transportation Research Part A, 95, 49–63.

Bask, A., & Rajahonka, M. (2017). The role of environmental sustainability in the freight transport mode choice: A systematic literature review with focus on the EU. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 47, 560–602.

Becker, F., & Axhausen, K. W. (2017). Literature review on surveys investigating the acceptance of automated vehicles. Transportation, 44, 1293–1306.

Beirão, G., & Cabral, J. S. (2007). Understanding attitudes towards public transport and private car. Transport Policy, 14, 478–489.

Bloomberg. (2017). Is your city getting ready for AVs? Retrieved from http://avsincities.bloomberg.org/global-atlas

Boesch, P. M., Ciari, F., & Axhausen, K. W. (2016). Autonomous vehicle fleet sizes required to serve different levels of demand. Transportation Research Record, 2542, 111–119.

Brereton, P., Kitchenham, B. A., Budgen, D., Turner, M., & Khalil, M. (2007). Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain. Journal of Systems and Software, 80, 571–583.

Brookhuis, K., de Waard, D., & Janssen, W. (2001). Behavioral impacts of advanced driver assistance systems: An overview. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 1, 245–253.

Bruin, R. D. (2016). Autonomous intelligent cars on the European intersection of liability and privacy. European Journal of Risk Regulation, 7, 485.

Burgess, K., Singh, P. J., & Koroglu, R. (2006). Supply chain management. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 26, 703–729.

Chang, D. L., Sabatini-Marques, J., da Costa, E. M., Selig, P. M., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2018). Knowledge-based, smart and sustainable cities. Journal of Open Innovation, 4, 5.

Chen, Y., Gonder, J., Young, S., & Wood, E. (2017). Quantifying autonomous vehicles national fuel consumption impacts. Transportation Research Part A. doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2017.10.012

Chen, Z. B., He, F., Yin, Y. F., & Du, Y. C. (2017). Optimal design of autonomous vehicle zones in transportation networks. Transportation Research Part B, 99, 44–61.

Childress, S., Nichols, B., Charlton, B., & Coe, S. (2015). Using an activity-based model to explore the potential impacts of automated vehicles. Transportation Research Record, 2493, 99–106.

Chong, Z. J., Qin, B., Bandyopadhyay, T., Wongpiromsarn, T., Rebsamen, B., Dai, P., & Ang Jr, M. H. (2013). Autonomy for mobility on demand. In S. Lee, H. Cho, K. J. Yoon, & J. Lee (Eds.), Intelligent autonomous systems 12, (pp. 671–682). Berlin: Springer, Berlin.

Christie, D., Koymans, A., Chanard, T., Lasgouttes, J. M., & Kaufmann, V. (2016). Pioneering driverless electric vehicles in Europe. Transportation Research Procedia, 13, 30–39.

Chun, B. T., & Lee, S. H. (2015). Review on ITS in smart city. Advanced Science and Technology Letters, 98, 52–54.

Collingwood, L. (2017). Privacy implications and liability issues of autonomous vehicles. Information and Communications Technology Law, 26, 32–45.

Coppola, R., & Morisio, M. (2016). Connected car. ACM Computing Surveys, 49, 46.

Correia, G. H. de A., & van Arem, B. (2016). Solving the user optimum privately-owned automated vehicles assignment problem UO-POAVAP: A model to explore the impacts of self-driving vehicles on urban mobility. Transportation Research Part B, 87, 64–88.

Crayton, T. J., & Meier, B. M. (2017). Autonomous vehicles. Journal of Transport and Health, 6, 245–252.

Creutzig, F., Jochem, P., Edelenbosch, O. Y., Mattauch, L., van Vuuren, D. P., McCollum, D., & Minx, J. (2015). Transport. Science, 350, 911–912.

Davidson, P., & Spinoulas, A. (2016). Driving alone versus riding together. Road and Transport Research, 253, 51–66.

Daziano, R. A., Sarrias, M., & Leard, B. (2017). Are consumers willing to pay to let cars drive for them? Transportation Research Part C, 78, 150–164.

Denaro, R. P., Zmud, J., Shladover, S., Smith, B. W., & Lappin, J. (2014). Automated vehicle technology. King Coal Highway, 292, 19–24.

Dhar, V. (2016). Equity, safety, and privacy in the autonomous vehicle era. Computer, 49, 80–83.

Dia, H., & Javanshour, F. (2017). Autonomous shared mobility-on-demand. Transportation Research Procedia, 22, 285–296.

Diakaki, C., Papageorgiou, M., Papamichail, I., & Nikolos, I. (2015). Overview and analysis of vehicle automation and communication systems from a motorway traffic management perspective. Transportation Research Part A, 75, 147–165.

Dixit, V. V, Chand, S., & Nair, D. J. (2016). Autonomous vehicles: Disengagements, accidents and reaction times. PLoS One, 11, e0168054.

DoT. (2016). Federal automated vehicles policy: Accelerating the next revolution in roadway safety. Washington, DC: US Department of Transport (DoT).

Dresner, K., & Stone, P. (2008). A multiagent approach to autonomous intersection management. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 31, 591–656.

Duvarci, Y., Yigitcanlar, T., & Mizokami, S. (2015). Transportation disadvantage impedance indexing. Journal of Transport Geography, 48, 61–75.

Fagnant, D. J., & Kockelman, K. M. (2014). The travel and environmental implications of shared autonomous vehicles, using agent-based model scenarios. Transportation Research Part C, 40, 1–13.

Fagnant, D. J., & Kockelman, K. (2015). Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: Opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations for capitalizing on self-driven vehicles. Transportation Research Part A, 77, 167–181.

Fagnant, D. J., Kockelman, K. M., & Bansal, P. (2015). Operations of shared autonomous vehicle fleet for Austin, Texas, market. Transportation Research Record, 2536, 98–106.

Farmer, D. L. (2016). Autonomous vehicles: The implications on urban transportation and traffic flow theory. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 86, 34–37.

Fernandes, P., & Nunes, U. (2012). Platooning with IVC-enabled autonomous vehicles: Strategies to mitigate communication delays, improve safety and traffic flow. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 13, 91–106.

Firnkorn, J., & Müller, M. (2015). Free-floating electric carsharing-fleets in smart cities. Environmental Science and Policy, 45, 30–40.

Gill, V., Kirk, B., Godsmark, P., & Flemming, B. (2015). Automated vehicles. Ottawa: The Conference Board of Canada.

Glancy, D. J. (2012). Privacy in autonomous vehicles. Santa Clara Law Review, 52, 1171–1239.

Gless, S., Silverman, E., & Weigend, T. (2016). If robots cause harm, who is to blame? New Criminal Law Review, 19, 412–436.

Gong, S., Shen, J., & Du, L. (2016). Constrained optimization and distributed computation-based car following control of a connected and autonomous vehicle platoon. Transportation Research Part B, 94, 314–334.

Greenblatt, J. B., & Saxena, S. (2015). Autonomous taxis could greatly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of US light-duty vehicles. Nature Climate Change, 5, 860–863.

Gruel, W., & Stanford, J. M. (2016). Assessing the long-term effects of autonomous vehicles. Transportation Research Procedia, 13, 18–29.

Heinrichs, D. (2016). Autonomous driving and urban land use. In: M. Maurer, J. C. Gerdes, B. Lenz, & H. Winner. (Eds.), Autonomous driving: Technical, legal and social aspects (pp. 213–231). Berlin: Springer.

Hendrickson, C., Biehler, A., & Mashayekh, Y. (2014). Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.

Hoogendoorn, R., van Arem, B., & Hoogendoorn, S. (2014). Automated driving, traffic flow efficiency and human factors: A literature review. Transportation Research Record, 2422, 113–120.

Isaac, L. (2016). How local governments can plan for autonomous vehicles. In G. Meyer & S. Beiker (Eds.), Road vehicle automation 3, (pp. 59-70). Berlin: Springer.

Kamruzzaman, M., Yigitcanlar, T., Washington, S., & Currie, G. (2014). Australian baby boomers switched to more environmentally friendly modes of transport during the global financial crisis. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11, 2133–2144.

Kamruzzaman, M., Hine, J., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2015). Investigating the link between carbon dioxide emissions and transport related social exclusion in rural Northern Ireland. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12, 3463–3478.

Kamruzzaman, M., Yigitcanlar, T., Yang, J., & Mohamed, A. (2016). Measures of transport-related social exclusion. Sustainability, 8, 696.

Kashfi, S., Bunker, J., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2015a). Effects of transit quality of service characteristics on daily bus ridership. Transportation Research Record, 2535, 55–64.

Kashfi, S., Bunker, J., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2015b). Understanding the effects of complex seasonality on suburban daily transit ridership. Journal of Transport Geography, 46, 67–80.

Kim, J., Moon, Y. J., & Suh, I. S. (2015). Smart mobility strategy in Korea on sustainability, safety and efficiency toward 2025. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, 7, 58–67.

Krueger, R., Rashidi, T. H., & Rose, J. M. (2016). Preferences for shared autonomous vehicles. Transportation Research Part C, 69, 343–355.

Lamondia, J. J., Fagnant, D. J., Qu, H., Barrett, J., & Kockelman, K. (2016). Shifts in long-distance travel mode due to automated vehicles and travel survey analysis. Transportation Research Record, 2566, 1–11.

Lara, A., Costa, E., Furlani, T., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2016). Smartness that matters: Comprehensive and human-centered characterization of smart cities. Journal of Open Innovation, 2, 8.

Lari, A., Douma, F., & Onyiah, I. (2015). Self-driving vehicles and policy implications. Minnesota Journal of Law Science and Technology, 16, 735.

Lee, C. (2017). Grabbing the wheel early: Moving forward on cybersecurity and privacy protections for driverless cars. Federal Communications Law Journal, 69, 25–52.

Lee, C. K., Lin, C. L., & Shiu, B. M. (2009). Autonomous vehicle parking using hybrid artificial intelligent approach. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 56, 319-343.

Levin, M. W., & Boyles, S. D. (2015). Effects of autonomous vehicle ownership on trip, mode, and route choice. Transportation Research Record, 2493, 29–38.

Levine, M. L., Segev, L. L., & Thode, S. F. (2017). A largely unnoticed impact on real estate. Appraisal Journal, 85, 51–59.

Li, B., & Shao, Z. (2015). A unified motion planning method for parking an autonomous vehicle in the presence of irregularly placed obstacles. Knowledge-Based Systems, 86, 11–20.

Litman, T. (2017). Autonomous vehicle implementation predictions. Victoria, BC: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Liu, J., Kockelman, K. M., Boesch, P. M., & Ciari, F. (2017). Tracking a system of shared autonomous vehicles across the Austin, Texas, network using agent-based simulation. Transportation, 44, 1261–1278.

Luo, Y., Xiang, Y., Cao, K., & Li, K. (2016). A dynamic automated lane change maneuver based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. Transportation Research Part C, 62, 87–102.

Ma, S., Zheng, Y., & Wolfson, O. (2015). Real-time city-scale taxi ridesharing. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 27, 1782–1795.

Malokin, A., Circella, G., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (2015). How do activities conducted while commuting influence mode choice? Testing public transportation advantage and autonomous vehicle scenarios. In 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, January 11–15.

Martinez, L. M., & Viegas, J. M. (2017). Assessing the impacts of deploying a shared self-driving urban mobility system: An agent-based model applied to the city of Lisbon, Portugal. International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, 6, 13–27.

Maurer, M., Gerdes, J. C., Lenz, B., & Winner, H. (Eds.). (2016). Autonomous driving: Technical, legal and social aspects. Berlin: Springer.

Meissner, E., Chantem, T., & Heaslip, K. (2016). Optimizing departures of automated vehicles from highways while maintaining mainline capacity. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 17, 3498–3511.

Meyer, J., Becker, H., Bösch, P. M., & Axhausen, K. W. (2017). Autonomous vehicles. Research in Transportation Economics, 62, 80–91.

Milakis, D., van Arem, B., & van Wee, G. (2017). Policy and society related implications of automated driving: A review of literature and directions for future research. Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 21, 324–348.

Milakis, D., Snelder, M., van Arem, B., Homem, G., & van Wee, G. (2017). Development and transport implications of automated vehicles in the Netherlands. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 17, 63–85.

Moorthy, A., De Kleine, R., Keoleian, G., Good, J., & Lewis, G. (2017). Shared autonomous vehicles as a sustainable solution to the last mile problem. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars-Electronic and Electrical Systems, 10, 328–336.

Murray, A. T., Davis, R., Stimson, R. J., & Ferreira, L. (1998). Public transportation access. Transportation Research Part D, 3, 319–328.

Newman, P., & Kenworthy, J. (1999). Sustainability and cities. New York: Island Press.

Newman, P., & Kenworthy, J. (Eds.) (2015). The end of automobile dependence. New York: Island Press.

NHTSA. (2016). Federal automated vehicles policy. Retrieved from https://www.transportation.gov/AV/federal-automated-vehicles-policy-september-2016

Nie, J., Zhang, J., Ding, W., Wan, X., Chen, X., & Ran, B. (2016). Decentralized cooperative lane-changing decision-making for connected autonomous vehicles. IEEE Access, 4, 9413–9420.

Nilsson, J., Brannstrom, M., Coelingh, E., & Fredriksson, J. (2017). Lane change maneuvers for automated vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 18, 1087–1096.

Nowakowski, C., Shladover, S. E., Chan, C. Y., & Tan, H. S. (2015). Development of California regulations to govern testing and operation of automated driving systems. Transportation Research Record, 2489, 137–144.

Nowakowski, C., Shladover, S. E., & Chan, C. Y. (2016). Determining the readiness of automated driving systems for public operation development of behavioral competency requirements. Transportation Research Record, 2559, 65–72.

Olaverri-Monreal, C. (2016). Autonomous vehicles and smart mobility related technologies. Infocommunications Journal, 8, 17–24.

Oliveira, C. M., Márcio de Almeida, D. A., de Mello, A. L., do Couto Assumpção, F., Dos Santos Gonçalves, F., & Gonçalves, D. N. (2016). Identificando os desafios e as boas práticas para o transporte urbano de cargas, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica sistemática. Transportes, 24, 9–19.

Oliveira, C. M., Albergaria De Mello Bandeira, R., Vasconcelos Goes, G., Schmitz Gonçalves, D. N., & D’Agosto, M. D. (2017). Sustainable vehicles-based alternatives in last mile distribution of urban freight transport: A systematic literature review. Sustainability, 9, 1324.

Owczarzak, Ł., & Żak, J. (2015). Design of passenger public transportation solutions based on autonomous vehicles and their multiple criteria comparison with traditional forms of passenger transportation. Transportation Research Procedia, 10, 472–482.

Payre, W., Cestac, J., & Delhomme, P. (2014). Intention to use a fully automated car. Transportation Research Part F, 27, 252–263.

Pendleton, S. D., Andersen, H., Du, X., Shen, X., Meghjani, M., Eng, Y. H., & Ang, M. H. (2017). Perception, planning, control, and coordination for autonomous vehicles. Machines, 5, 6.

Perveen, S., Yigitcanlar, T., Kamruzzaman, M., & Hayes, J. (2017). Evaluating transport externalities of urban growth. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14, 663–678.

Perveen, S., Kamruzzaman, M., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2017). Developing policy scenarios for sustainable urban growth management. Sustainability, 9, 1787.

Perveen, S., Kamruzzaman, M., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2018). What to assess to model the transport impacts of urban growth? A Delphi approach to review the space-time suitability of transport indicators. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2018.1491077

Piao, J., McDonald, M., Hounsell, N., Graindorge, M., Graindorge, T., & Malhene, N. (2016). Public views towards implementation of automated vehicles in urban areas. Transportation Research Procedia, 14, 2168–2177.

Pinjari, A. R., & Menon, N. (2013). Highway capacity impacts of autonomous vehicles. Tampa, FL: Center for Urban Transportation Research.

Rowley, J., & Slack, F. (2004). Conducting a literature review. Management Research News, 27, 31–39.

Rubin, J. (2016). Connected autonomous vehicles: Travel behavior and energy use. In G. Meyer & S. Beiker (Eds.), Road vehicle automation 3, (pp. 151–162). Berlin: Springer.

SAE. (2016a). Automated driving. Retrieved from https://www.sae.org/misc/pdfs/automated_driving.pdf

SAE. (2016b). Taxonomy and definitions for terms related to driving automation systems for on-road motor vehicles. Retrieved from http://standards.sae.org/j3016_201609

Schellekens, M. (2015). Self-driving cars and the chilling effect of liability law. Computer Law and Security Review, 31, 506–517.

Scheltes, A., & de Almeida Correia, G. H. (2017). Exploring the use of automated vehicles as last mile connection of train trips through an agent-based simulation model. International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, 6, 28–41.

Shladover, S. E., Su, D., Lu, X. Y. (2012). Impacts of cooperative adaptive cruise control on freeway traffic flow. Transportation Research Record, 2324, 63–70.

Shladover, S. E. (2018). Connected and automated vehicle systems. Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 22, 190–200.

Smith, B. W. (2012). Managing autonomous transportation demand. Santa Clara Law Review, 52, 1401–1422.

Smolnicki, P. M., & Sołtys, J. (2016). Driverless mobility. Procedia Engineering, 161, 2184–2190.

Snyder, R. (2016). Implications of autonomous vehicles: A planner’s perspective. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 86, 25–28.

Spyropoulou, I., Penttinen, M., Karlaftis, M., Vaa, T., & Golias, J. (2008). ITS solutions and accident risks: Prospective and limitations. Transport Reviews, 28, 549–572.

Talebpour, A., & Mahmassani, H. S. (2016). Influence of connected and autonomous vehicles on traffic flow stability and throughput. Transportation Research Part C, 71, 143–163.

Tranfield, D., Denyer, D., & Smart, P. (2003). Towards a methodology for developing evidence‐informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management, 14, 207–222.

Trindade, E., Hinnig, M., Costa, E., Sabatini-Marques, J., Bastos, R., & Yigitcanlar, T. (2017). Sustainable development of smart cities. Journal of Open Innovation, 3, 11.

Truong, L. T., De Gruyter, C., Currie, G., & Delbosc, A. (2017). Estimating the trip generation impacts of autonomous vehicles on car travel in Victoria. Transportation, 44, 1279–1292.

UK Parliament. (2016). Vehicle technology and automation bill. Retrieved from https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2016-2017/0143/cbill_2016-20170143_en_2.htm

van Arem, B., van Driel, C., & Visser, R. (2006). The impact of co-operative adaptive cruise control on traffic flow characteristics. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 7, 429–436.

Vellinga, N. E. (2017). From the testing to the deployment of self-driving cars. Computer Law and Security Review, 33, 847–863.

Volvo. (2017). Autonomous driving. Retrieved from https://www.volvocars.com/intl/about/our-innovation-brands/intellisafe/autonomous-driving

Wadud, Z., MacKenzie, D., & Leiby, P. (2016). Help or hindrance? Transportation Research Part A, 86, 1–18.

Wadud, Z. (2017). Fully automated vehicles. Transportation Research Part A, 101, 163–176.

Walker, W. E., & Marchau, V. A. (2017). Dynamic adaptive policymaking for the sustainable city. International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, 6, 1–12.

Winkle, T. (2016). Safety benefits of automated vehicles. In M. Winner (Ed.), Autonomous driving (pp. 335–364). Berlin: Springer.

Xiao, L., & Gao, F. (2010). A comprehensive review of the development of adaptive cruise control systems. Vehicle System Dynamics, 48, 1167–1192.

Xie, Y., Zhang, H., Gartner, N. H., & Arsava, T. (2017). Collaborative merging strategy for freeway ramp operations in a connected and autonomous vehicles environment. Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 21, 136–147.

Yağdereli, E., Gemci, C., & Aktaş, A. Z. (2015). A study on cyber-security of autonomous and unmanned vehicles. Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation, 12, 369–381.

Yigitcanlar, T., Sipe, N., Evans, R., & Pitot, M. (2007). A GIS-based land use and public transport accessibility indexing model. Australian Planner, 44, 30-37.

Yigitcanlar, T., Fabian, L., & Coiacetto, E. (2008). Challenges to urban transport sustainability and smart transport in a tourist city. Open Transportation Journal, 1, 19–36.

Yigitcanlar, T., & Kamruzzaman, M. (2014). Investigating the interplay between transport, land use and the environment: A review of the literature. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11, 2121–2132.

Yigitcanlar, T., & Lee, S. (2014). Korean ubiquitous-eco-city. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 89, 100–114.

Yigitcanlar, T. (2015). Smart cities: An effective urban development and management model? Australian Planner, 52, 27–34.

Yigitcanlar, T. (2016). Technology and the city: Systems, applications and implications. New York: Routledge.

Yigitcanlar, T., Currie, G., & Kamruzzaman, M. (2017). Driverless vehicles could bring out the best—or worst—in our cities by transforming land use. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/driverless-vehicles-could-bring-out-the-best-or-worst-in-our-cities-by-transforming-land-use-84127

Yigitcanlar, T., & Kamruzzaman, M. (2018a). Does smart city policy lead to sustainability of cities? Land Use Policy, 73, 49–58.

Yigitcanlar, T., & Kamruzzaman, M. (2018b). Smart cities and mobility: Does the smartness of Australian cities lead to sustainable commuting patterns? Journal of Urban Technology. doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2018.1476794

Yigitcanlar, T., Kamruzzaman, M., Buys, L., Ioppolo, G., Sabatini-Marques, J., Costa, E., & Yun, J. (2018a). Understanding ‘smart cities’: Intertwining development drivers with desired outcomes in a multidimensional framework. Cities, 81, 145–160.

Yigitcanlar, T., Foth, M., & Kamruzzaman, M. (2018b). Towards post-anthropocentric cities: Reconceptualizing smart cities to evade urban ecocide. Journal of Urban Technology. doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2018.1524249

Yigitcanlar, T., Mohamed, A., Kamruzzaman, M., & Piracha, A. (2018c). Understanding transport-related social exclusion: A multidimensional approach. Urban Research and Policy. doi.org/10.1080/08111146.2018.1533461

Zakharenko, R. (2016). Self-driving cars will change cities. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 61, 26–37.

Zhang, W., Guhathakurta, S., Fang, J., & Zhang, G. (2015). Exploring the impact of shared autonomous vehicles on urban parking demand: An agent-based simulation approach. Sustainable Cities and Society, 19, 34–45.

Zhou, M., Qu, X., & Jin, S. (2017). On the impact of cooperative autonomous vehicles in improving freeway merging. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 186, 1422–1428.

Zohdy, I. A., & Rakha, H. A. (2016). Intersection management via vehicle connectivity: The intersection cooperative adaptive cruise control system concept. Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, 20, 17–32.

The appendix is available as a supplemental file at https://www.jtlu.org/index.php/jtlu/rt/suppFiles/1405/0.

Published
2019-01-28
How to Cite
Faisal, A., Yigitcanlar, T., Kamruzzaman, M., & Currie, G. (2019). Understanding autonomous vehicles: A systematic literature review on capability, impact, planning and policy. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2019.1405
Section
Articles