Parking and competition for space in urban neighborhoods: Residents’ perceptions of traffic and parking-related conflicts


  • Franziska Kirschner Goethe University Frankfurt



parking, urban neighborhood, conflicts, behavior change


The infrastructure for parking and parked cars themselves (e.g., parked cars blocking bike lanes and sidewalks or the visibility range) can lead to conflicts for pedestrians and cyclists. The perception of conflicts could discourage walking and cycling in neighborhoods and undermine municipalities’ efforts to provide more sustainable urban mobility. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the effect of on-street car parking in urban neighborhoods on perceived parking and traffic-related conflicts. In addition, it examines in what way the intention to reduce one’s car use influences the perception of the conflicts (Stage Model of Self-Regulated Behavior Change (SSBC)). A household survey was conducted in the inner-city neighborhood of Frankfurt-Bornheim, Germany (N=1027). The residents most often observed the conflicts in which parked cars impeded walking and cycling as well as situations in which pedestrians felt threatened by cyclists biking on the sidewalk. Results from multiple linear regression models revealed that the influencing factors for the perception of conflicts were the use of different means of transportation and the intention to change one’s behavior (SSBC model) to reduce car use rather than car ownership. In addition, a resident’s age and household structure seemed to affect awareness of conflicts in which pedestrians and cyclists were involved. The results suggest a group-serving bias, meaning that the residents mostly observed those conflicts that they did not cause. A separate infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists could help prevent most of the conflicts described in this study.


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.

Alrutz, D., & Bohle, W. (2001). Flächenbedarf des Fußverkehrs und des Aufenthalts auf Gehwegen. In T. Bracher et al. (Eds.), Handbuch der kommunalen verkehrsplanung (pp. 1–19). Berlin: Wichmann Verlag.

Bamberg, S. (2013). Applying the stage model of self-regulated behavioral change in a car use reduction intervention. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 33, 68–57.

Bamberg, S. (2012). Wie funktioniert verhaltensveränderung? Das MAX-selbstregulationsmodell. In M. Stiewe & M. Reutter (Eds), Mobilitätsmanagement: Wissenschaftliche grundlagen und wirkungen in der praxis (pp. 76–101). Essen: Klartext Verlag.

Banister, D. (2008). The sustainable mobility paradigm. Transport Policy, 15, 73–80.

Becker, U. J. (2016). Grundwissen verkehrsökologie. Grundlagen, handlungsfelder und maßnahmen für die verkehrswende. Munich: Oekom Verlag.

Binson, D., Canchola, J. A. & Catania, J. A. (2000). Random selection in a national telephone survey: A comparison of the kish, next-birthday, and last-birthday method. Journal of Official Statistics, 16(1), 53–59.

Blitz, A., Busch-Geertsema, A., & Lanzendorf, M. (2020). More cycling, less driving? Findings of a cycle street intervention study in the Rhine-Main metropolitan region. Sustainability, 12(805), 1–25.

Bracher, T. (2014). Fahrrad-und fußverkehr: Strukturen und potentiale. In O. Schwedes et al. (Eds.). Handbuch verkehrspolitik (pp. 1–22). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Cervero, R. (2009). Transport infrastructure and global competitiveness: Balancing mobility and livability. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 626(1), 210–225. https://doi.10.1177/0002716209344171

Chataway, E. S., Kaplan, S., Nielsen, T. A. S., & Prato, C. G. (2014). Safety perceptions and reported behavior related to cycling in mixed traffic: A comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen. Transportation Research Part F, 23, 32–43.

Chaurand, N. & Delhomme, P. (2013). Cyclists and drivers in road interactions: A comparison of perceived crash risk. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 50, 1176–1184.

Chester, M., Horvath, A., & Madanat, S. (2011). Parking infrastructure and the environment. Access, 39, 28–33.

City of Frankfurt, Referat mobilitäts-und verkehrsplanung. (2014). Parkkonzept Bornheim – erhebungsergebnisse. Frankfurt: Frankfurt am main.

City of Frankfurt, Bürgeramt Statistik und Wahlen. (2019a). Materialien zur stadtbeobachtung (No. 28). Retrieved from

City of Frankfurt, der Magistrat. (2019b). Bericht des magistrats an die stadtverordnetenversammlung (B299). Retrieved from DDW?W=DOK_NAME=%27B_299_2019%27

City of Frankfurt, Stadtvermessungsamt (2020). GeoInfo Frankfurt. Retrieved from

Coughenour, C., Abelar, J., Pharr, J., Chien, L.-C., & Singh, A. (2020). Estimated car cost as a predictor of driver yielding behaviors for pedestrians. Journal of Transport & Health, 16(100831). https://doi.10.1016/j.jth.2020.100831

Cox, P. (2012). A denial of our boasted civilization: Cyclists' views on conflicts over road use in Britain, 1926–1935. Transfers 2(3), 4–30. https://doi.10.3167/trans.2012.020302

Culver, G. (2018). Death and the car: On (auto)mobility, violence, and injustice. ACME, 17(1), 144–170.

DiClemente, C. C., & Prochaska, J. O. (1982). Self-change and therapy change of smoking behavior: A comparison of processes of change in cessation and maintenance. Addictive Behaviors, 7, 133–142.

Diekmann, A. (2017). Empirische sozialforschung — grundlagen, methoden, anwendungen. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.

Dürr, S., & Simon-Philipp, C. (2013). Stadterneuerung und öffentlicher raum. Wohnraum stadt - strategien, projekte. In K. Altrock et al. (Eds.), Jahrbuch atadterneuerung 2013 – das ende der behutsamkeit? (pp. 303–315). Berlin: TU Berlin.

Ewing, R. & Dumbaugh, E. (2009). The built environment and traffic safety: A review of empirical evidence. Journal of Planning Literature, 23(4), 347–367. https://doi.10.1177/0885412209335553

Federal Statistical Office. (2020, February 27). Press release No. 061. Retrieved from

Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (5th ed.). London: Sage Publications Ltd

Findley, D. J., Nye, T. S., Lattimore, E., Swain, G., Bhat, S. K. P. & Foley, B. (2020). Safety effects of parking maneuvers. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, 69, 301–310. https://doi.10.1016/j.trf.2020.02.002

Fuller, W. A. (2009). Sampling statistics. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Gehl, J. (2010). Public spaces for changing life. In A. Havermann & K. Selle (Eds.), Plätze, parks & co: Stadträume im wandel – analysen, positionen und konzepte (pp. 375–384). Detmold: Rohn Verlag.

Gehl, J. (2015). Cities for people. Washington, DC: Island Press

Gifford, R. & Steg, L. (2007). The impact of automobile traffic on quality of life. In R. Gifford & L. Steg (Eds.), Threats from car traffic to the quality of urban life: Problems, causes and solutions (pp. 33–51). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Goldman, T. & Gorham, R. (2006). Sustainable urban transport: Four innovative directions. Technology in Society, 28(1–2), 261–273. https://doi.10.1016/j.techsoc.2005.10.007

Gössling, S., Schröder, M., Späth, P. & Freytag, T. (2016). Urban space distribution and sustainable transport. Transport Reviews, 36(5), 659–679.

Harms, S., Kviese, R., Dombrowski, F., Höer, S., Kussatz, A., & Rosenau, E. (2009).

Parkraumprobleme in wachsenden stadtteilen. Anwohnerbefragung und evaluation freiwilliger verhaltensänderungen zur lösung des parkraumproblems in Leipzig-Schleußig (UFZ-Diskussionspapiere). Leipzig: Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung.

Infas (Institut für Angewandte Aozialwissenschaft) & DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt). (2019). Mobilität in Deutschland – kurzreport. Retrieved from

Jacobsen, P. L., Racioppi, F. & Rutter, H. (2009). Who owns the roads? How motorized traffic discourages walking and bicycling. Injury Prevention, 15, 369–373. https://doi.10.1136/ip.2009.022566

King, M. J., Wood, J. M., Lacherez, P. F., & Marszalek, R. P. (2012). Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 44, 154–159.

Kirschner, F. (2019). Methodik zur haushaltsbefragung “quartiersentwicklung und mobilität in Frankfurt-Bornheim (Arbeitspapiere zur mobilitätsforschung, 20). Frankfurt: Goethe University Frankfurt am Main. Retrieved from

Kirschner, F. & Lanzendorf, M. (2020a). Support for innovative on-street parking policies: Empirical evidence from an urban neighborhood. Journal of Transport Geography, 85, 102726.

Kirschner, F. & Lanzendorf, M. (2020b). Parking management for promoting sustainable transport in urban neighborhoods. A review of existing policies and challenges from a German perspective. Transport Reviews, 40(1), 54–75.

Kuhnimhof, T., Buehler, R., Wirtz, M. & Kalinowska, D. (2012). Travel trends among young adults in Germany: Increasing multimodality and declining car use for men. Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 443–450.

Le, H. T. K., Buehler, R., & Hankey, R. (2019). Have walking and bicycling increased in the US? A 13-year longitudinal analysis of traffic counts from 13 metropolitan areas. Transportation Research Part D, 69, 329–345.

Litman, T. (2019). Well measured. Developing indicators for sustainable and livable transport planning. Victoria, BC: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Malin, F., Silla, A., & Mladenović, M. (2020). Prevalence and factors associated with pedestrian fatalities and serious injuries: Case Finland. European Transport. Reseach Review, 12(1), 1–17.

Manville, M., & Pinski, M. (2020). Parking behavior: Bundled parking and travel behavior in American cities. Land Use Policy, 91, 103853. https://doi.10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.02.012

Manville, M., & Shoup, D. (2018). People, parking, and cities. In D. Shoup (Ed.). Parking and the city (pp. 74–80). New York: Routledge.

Mattioli, G., Roberts, C., Steinberger, J. K., & Brown, A. (2020). The political economy of car dependence: A systems of provision approach. Energy Research & Social Science, 66, 101486. https://doi.10.1016/j.erss.2020.101486

Merlin, L. A., Cherry, C. R., Mohamadi-Hezaveh, A., & Dumbaugh, E. (2020). Residential accessibility’s relationships with crash rates per capita. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 13(1), 113–128.

Mokhtarian, P. L. & Pendyala, R. M. (2018). Travel satisfaction and wellbeing. In M. Friman, D. Ettema & L. E. Olsson (Eds.), Quality of life and daily travel (pp. 17–39). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Nello-Deakin, S. (2019). Is there such a thing as a ‘fair’ distribution of road space? Journal of Urban Design, 24(5), 698–714.

Norton, P. D. (2008). Fighting traffic: The dawn of the motor age in the American city. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Notz, J. N. (2017). Die privatisierung des öffentlichen raums durch parkende kfz. Von der tragödie einer allmende – über ursache, wirkung und legitimation einer gemeinwohlschädigenden regulierungspraxis (IVP-discussion paper 1/2017). Berlin: TU Berlin.

OECD (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development) (2020, April 16). What are equivalence scales? OECD project on income distribution and poverty. Retrieved from

Oswald, F. & Konopik, N. (2015). Bedeutung von außerhäuslichen aktivitäten, nachbarschaft und stadtteilidentifikation für das wohlbefinden im alter. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 5(48), 401–407.

Pai, C.-W. (2011). Overtaking, rear-end, and door crashes involving bicycles: An empirical investigation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1228–1235.

Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 390–395.

Schlossberg, M. & Amos, D. (2015). Rethinking residential on-street parking. In E. Talen (Ed.), Retrofitting sprawl: Addressing seventy years of failed urban form (pp. 181–198). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Schwanen, T., & Páez, A. (2010). The mobility of older people – an introduction. Journal of Transport Geography, 18, 591–595.

Schwartz, S. H. (1977). Normative influences on altruism. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 221–279). New York: Academic Press.

Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.

Stjernborg, V., Emilsson, U. M. & Ståhl, A. (2014). Changes in outdoor mobility when becoming alone in the household in old age. Journal of Transport & Health, 1, 9–16.

Vuchic, V. R. (2010). Transportation for livable cities: Problems, obstacles and successful solutions. In G. L. Ooi & B. Yuen (Eds.), World cities: Achieving livability and vibrancy (pp. 105–130). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

Viegas de Lima, I., Abou-Zeid, M., Kutadinata, R., Nacidi, Z., Winter, S., Zhao, F. & Ben-Akiva, M. (2018). Dynamic modeling of activity happiness: An investigation of the intra-activity hedonic treadmill. In M. Friman, D. Ettema & L. E. Olsson (Eds.), Quality of life and daily travel (pp. 95–118). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Weinberger, R. (2018). Parking mismanagement: An Rx for congestion. In D. Shoup (Ed.), Parking and the city (pp. 101–108). New York: Routledge.

Weinberger, R., & Jacobson, L. (2014). Parking in Guangzhou: Principles for congestion reduction and improving quality of life in a growing city. In S. Ison & C. Mulley (Eds.), Parking: Issues and policies (pp. 381–407). Howard House, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.

Wood, J. M., Lacherez, O. F., Marszalek, R. P. & King, M. J. (2009). Drivers’ and cyclists’ experiences of sharing the road: Incidents, attitudes and perceptions of visibility. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41, 772–776.




How to Cite

Kirschner, F. (2021). Parking and competition for space in urban neighborhoods: Residents’ perceptions of traffic and parking-related conflicts. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 14(1), 603-623.