The freight landscape: Convergence and divergence in urban freight distribution
Keywords:City Logistics, Urban Freight Distribution, Land Use, Spatial Structure
AbstractThe paper introduces the concept of the freight landscape: the spatial distribution of freight activity and intensity in a metropolitan area. Using population and employment density information, a freight landscape matrix is calculated for four major metropolitan areas: New York, Los Angeles, Paris and Seoul. Levels of convergence and divergence between population and employment densities are assessed, each characterized by different freight landscapes requiring different city logistics strategies. Results reveal substantial variations between metropolitan areas, which are observed across the respective levels of zonal specialization as well as density changes over distance from central areas.
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