Spatial mismatch for distinct socioeconomic groups in Xiamen, China


  • Yongling Li
  • Stan Geertman
  • Yanliu Lin
  • Pieter Hooimeijer
  • Wangtu Xu
  • Jie Huang Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences



spatial mismatch, job accessibility, blue-collar, pink-collar, white-collar, Xiamen


Studies have found that spatial mismatch is a universal phenomenon, although both their substantive and methodological focus can differ substantially. In China, there is a growing body of literature on spatial mismatch, but few studies have measured the degree of spatial mismatch between local and migrant workers in different occupations. To fill this gap, this research investigates the spatial mismatch for different socioeconomic groups in Xiamen according to their “hukou” status and occupation. As one of the country’s first four special economic zones, Xiamen achieved housing marketization earlier than most other Chinese cities, attracting a large amount of capital and migrants, and shaping different spatial patterns of local workers and migrant workers. The findings show that blue-collar, pink-collar, and white-collar workers, who are further categorized as either locals or migrants, experience varying degrees of job accessibility and spatial mismatch. In addition, even though migrant workers experience less spatial mismatch, they still have disadvantages in terms of commuting time due to their travel mode. The results presented in this paper are helpful for understanding the spatial mismatch for various social groups and facilitating sustainable mobility and social equity.

Author Biography

Jie Huang, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences

I am an Associate Professor in our institute. My research interests include in transport geography, travel behaviors, big data, and transport planning. E-mail:


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How to Cite

Li, Y., Geertman, S. ., Lin, Y. ., Hooimeijer, P. ., Xu, W., & Huang, J. (2022). Spatial mismatch for distinct socioeconomic groups in Xiamen, China. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 15(1), 53–70.