The effects of pedestrian and bicycle exposure on crash risk in Minneapolis


  • Tao Tao
  • Greg Lindsey University of Minnesota
  • Jason Cao
  • Jueyu Wang University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill



Pedestrian Bicycle; Exposure; Crash risk; Safety performance function; Equity


Exposure to risk is a theoretically important correlate of crash risk, but many safety performance functions (SPFs) for pedestrian and bicycle traffic have yet to include the mode-specific measures of exposure. When SPFs are used in the systematic approach to assess network-wide crash risk, the omission of the exposure potentially could affect the identification of high-risk locations. Using crash data from Minneapolis, this study constructs and compares two sets of SPFs, one with pedestrian and bicycle exposure variables and the other without, for network-wide intersection and mid-block crash models. Inclusion of mode-specific exposure variables improves model validity and measures of goodness-of-fit and increases accuracy of predictions of pedestrian and bicycle crash risk. Including these exposure variables in the SPFs changes the distribution of high-risk locations, including the proportion of high-risk locations in low-income and racially concentrated areas. These results confirm the importance of incorporating exposure measures within SPFs and the need for pedestrian and bicycle monitoring programs to generate exposure data.


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How to Cite

Tao, T., Lindsey, G., Cao, J., & Wang, J. (2021). The effects of pedestrian and bicycle exposure on crash risk in Minneapolis. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 14(1), 1187–1208.