Factors affecting electric vehicle adoption intention: The impact of objective, perceived, and prospective charger accessibility
Keywords:electric vehicle (EV), charging facilities, accessibility, public acceptance, Hong Kong
In the era of e-mobility, promoting electric vehicle (EV) usage is considered a policy worth incorporating into a government’s agenda. While accessibility has been broadly recognized as important for user intention to adopt EVs, few studies have considered how accessibility affects public acceptance of EVs. This study measures the objective, perceived and prospective accessibility of public EV charging facilities, investigating how and to what extent this novel set of accessibility measures affects the EV adoption intention of individuals. The data are primarily derived from a recent questionnaire survey of driver license holders in Hong Kong administered to both EV owners and non-EV owners. Objective accessibility is measured by the number of (population-weighted) Tesla and standard chargers publicly available within five minutes walking distance of an individual’s residential district and subjective (i.e., perceived and prospective) accessibility is measured by four Likert-scale questions. The results show that objective accessibility significantly and substantially influences an individual’s intention to purchase an EV. Meanwhile, both perceived and prospective accessibility are highly significant for the adoption intention of non-EV owners. We also observe significant effects for perceived and prospective driving ranges, environmental consciousness and prior experience with EVs. This study provides a valuable reference for the impact of the accessibility of public EV chargers on EV adoption in the context of a high-density Asian city. Based on the findings, we propose various policy recommendations that integrate accessibility planning strategies into EV promotion in cities that aspire to expand e-mobility.
Anable, J., Skippon, S., Schuitema, G., & Kinnear, N. (2011). Who will adopt electric vehicles? A segmentation approach of UK consumers. Proceedings from ECEEE 2011 Summer Study, Belambra Presqu’lle de Giens, France.
Axsen, J., Goldberg, S., & Bailey, J. (2016). How might potential future plug-in electric vehicle buyers differ from current “pioneer” owners? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 47, 357–370.
Ben-Joseph, E. (2012). Re-thinking a lot: The design and culture of parking. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brant, R. (1990). Assessing proportionality in the proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Biometrics, 46, 1171–1178.
Burgess, M., King, N., Harris, M., & Lewis, E. (2013). Electric vehicle drivers’ reported interactions with the public: Driving stereotype change? Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behavior, 17, 33–44.
Caperello, N. D., & Kurani, K. S. (2011). Households’ stories of their encounters with a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Environment and Behavior, 44(4), 493–508.
Carley, S., Krause, R. M., Lane, B. W., & Graham, J. D. (2013). Intent to purchase a plug-in electric vehicle: A survey of early impressions in large US cities. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 18, 39–45.
Census and Statistics Department. (2018). Population aged 15 and over (excluding foreign domestic helpers) by educational attainment (highest level completed) and year. Retrieved from https://www.bycensus2016.gov.hk/en/bc-mt.html
Census and Statistics Department. (2019). Wage and labor earnings. Retrieved from https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hkstat/sub/so210.jsp
Census and Statistics Department. (2020). Population estimates. Retrieved from https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/en/web_table.html?id=1A
Cheng, Y. H., & Chen, S. Y. (2015). Perceived accessibility, mobility, and connectivity of public transportation systems. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77, 386–403.
Curl, A., Nelson, J. D., & Anable, J. (2011). Does accessibility planning address what matters? A review of current practice and practitioner perspectives. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 2, 3–11.
Curtis, C., & Scheurer, J. (2010). Planning for sustainable accessibility: Developing tools to aid discussion and decision-making. Progress in Planning, 74(2), 53–106.
Danielis, R., Rotaris, L., Giansoldati, M., & Scorrano, M. (2020). Drivers’ preferences for electric cars in Italy. Evidence from a country with limited but growing electric car uptake. Transportation Research Part A, 137, 79–94.
Dong, X., Zhang, B., Wang, B., & Wang, Z. (2020). Urban households’ purchase intentions for pure electric vehicles under subsidy contexts in China: Do cost factors matter? Transportation Research Part A, 135, 183–197.
Egbue, O., & Long, S. (2012). Barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles: An analysis of consumer attitudes and perceptions. Energy Policy, 48, 717–729.
Electric Vehicles Promotion and Charging Infrastructure Committee. (2019). Proposal of preparing Hong Kong for the era of electric vehicles. Hong Kong: Hong Kong E-Vehicles Business General Association.
Environmental Protection Department. (2019). Promotion of electric vehicles in Hong Kong. Retrieved from https://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/air/prob_solutions/promotion_ev.html
Feitelson, E., & Rotem, O. (2004). The case for taxing surface parking. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 9(4), 319–333.
Geurs, K. T., & Van Wee, B. (2004). Accessibility evaluation of land-use and transport strategies: Review and research directions. Journal of Transport Geography, 12(2), 127–140.
Graham-Rowe, E., Gardner, B., Abraham, C., Skippon, S., Dittmar, H., Hutchins, R., & Stannard, J. (2012). Mainstream consumers driving plug-in battery-electric and plug-in hybrid electric cars: A qualitative analysis of responses and evaluations. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46, 140–153.
Greene, W. H. (2008). The econometric approach to efficiency analysis. The Measurement of Productive Efficiency and Productivity Growth, 1(1), 92–250.
Handy, S. L., & Niemeier, D. A. (1997). Measuring accessibility: An exploration of issues and alternatives. Environment and Planning A, 29(7), 1175–1194.
Hansen, W. G. (1959). How accessibility shapes land use. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 25(2), 73–76.
Haustein, S., & Jensen, A. F. (2018). Factors of electric vehicle adoption: A comparison of conventional and electric car users based on an extended theory of planned behavior. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 12(7), 484–496.
He, S. Y., Kuo, Y. H., & Wu, D. (2016). Incorporating institutional and spatial factors in the selection of the optimal locations of public electric vehicle charging facilities: A case study of Beijing, China. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 67, 131–148.
He, S. Y., Kuo, Y. H., & Sun, K. K. (2022). The spatial planning of public electric vehicle charging infrastructure in a high-density city using a contextualized location-allocation model. Transportation Research Part A, 160, 21–44.
Hong Kong Electric. (2018). Installation of electric vehicle (EV) charging facilities at residential and commercial buildings. Retrieved from https://www.hkelectric.com/en/ElectricLiving/ElectricVehicles/Documents/English%20-%20FAQ%20for%20EV%20Charging%20Seminar.pdf
Hong Kong Productivity Council. (2014). An industry study on electric vehicle adoption in Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://www.hkpc.org/images/stories/corp_info/hkpc_pub/EVstudyreport.pdf
Hossain, M. A., & Quaddus, M. (2012). Expectation–confirmation theory in information system research: A review and analysis. In Y. K. Dwivedi, M. R. Wade & S. L. Schneberger (Eds.), Information systems theory (pp. 441-469). New York: Springer.
Huijts, N. M. A., Molin, E. J. E., & Steg, L. (2012). Psychological factors influencing sustainable energy technology acceptance: A review-based comprehensive framework. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 525–531.
Jensen, A. F., Cherchi, E., & Mabit, S. L. (2013). On the stability of preferences and attitudes before and after experiencing an electric vehicle. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 25, 24–32.
Lambert, F. (2019, January 2). Electric car sales grew by 40% in Norway this year. Electrek. Retrieved from https://electrek.co/2019/01/02/electric-car-sales-norway-2018/
Lattman, K., Friman, M., & Olsson, L. E. (2016a). Perceived accessibility of public transport as a potential indicator of social inclusion. Social Inclusion, 4(3), 36–45.
Lattman, K., Olsson, L. E., & Friman, M. (2016b). Development and test of the perceived accessibility scale (PAC) in public transport. Journal of Transport Geography, 54, 257–263.
Lieven, T., Mühlmeier, S., Henkel, S., & Waller, J. F. (2011). Who will buy electric cars? An empirical study in Germany. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(3), 236–243.
Lotfi, S., & Koohsari, M. J. (2009). Measuring objective accessibility to neighborhood facilities in the city (A case study: Zone 6 in Tehran, Iran). Cities, 26, 133–140.
Moons, I., & De Pelsmacker, P. (2012). Emotions as determinants of electric car usage intention. Journal of Marketing Management, 28(3–4), 195–237.
Morris, J. M., Dumble, P. L., & Wigan, M. R. (1979). Accessibility indicators for transport planning. Transportation Research Part A: General, 13(2), 91–109.
Morton, C., Anable, J., & Nelson, J. D. (2017). Consumer structure in the emerging market for electric vehicles: Identifying market segments using cluster analysis. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(6), 443–459.
Neubauer, J., & Wood, E. (2014). The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility. Journal of Power Sources, 257, 12–20.
Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460–469.
Oliver, J. D., & Rosen, D. E. (2010). Applying the environmental propensity framework: A segmented approach to hybrid electric vehicle marketing strategies. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 18(4), 377–393.
Páez, A., Scott, D. M., & Morency, C. (2012). Measuring accessibility: Positive and normative implementations of various accessibility indicators. Journal of Transport Geography, 25, 141–153.
Peters, A., Agosti, R., Popp, M., & Ryf, B. (2011). Electric mobility – a survey of different consumer groups in Germany with regard to adoption. Proceedings of the ECEEE 2011 Summer Study, 983–994.
Pirie, G. H. (1979). Measuring accessibility: A review and proposal. Environment and Planning A, 11(3), 299–312.
Plötz, P., Schneider, U., Globisch, J., & Dütschke, E. (2014). Who will buy electric vehicles? Identifying early adopters in Germany. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 67, 96–109.
Priessner, A., Sposato, R., & Hampl, N. (2018). Predictors of electric vehicle adoption: An analysis of potential electric vehicle drivers in Austria. Energy Policy, 122, 701.
Ryan, M., Lin, T., Xia, J. C., & Robinson, T. (2016). Comparison of perceived and measured accessibility between different age groups and travel modes at Greenwood Station, Perth, Australia. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 16(2), 406–423.
Schuitema, G., Anable, J., Skippon, S., & Kinnear, N. (2013). The role of instrumental, hedonic and symbolic attributes in the intention to adopt electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 48, 39–49.
Scott, M. M., Evenson, K. R., Cohen, D. A., & Cox, C. E. (2007). Comparing perceived and objectively measured access to recreational facilities as predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls. Journal of Urban Health, 84(3), 346–359.
Skippon, S., & Garwood, M. (2011). Responses to battery electric vehicles: UK consumer attitudes and attributions of symbolic meaning following direct experience to reduce psychological distance. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16, 525–531.
Sun, K. K., He, S. Y., & Thøgersen, J. (2022). The purchase intention of electric vehicles in Hong Kong, a high-density Asian context, and main differences from a Nordic context. Transport Policy, 128, 98–112.
Tesla. (2019). Supercharger idle fee. Retrieved from https://www.tesla.com/en_HK/support/supercharger-idle-fee?redirect=no#all-pricing
Thong, J. Y., Hong, S. J., & Tam, K. Y. (2006). The effects of post-adoption beliefs on the expectation-confirmation model for information technology continuance. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64(9), 799–810.
Thøgersen, J., & Ebsen, J. V. (2019). Perceptual and motivational reasons for the low adoption of electric cars in Denmark. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, 65, 89–106.
Transport Department. (2021). Monthly traffic and transport digest. Retrieved from https://www.td.gov.hk/en/transport_in_hong_kong/transport_figures/monthly_traffic_and_transport_digest/index.html
Transport for London. (2017). Electric vehicle charging infrastructure: Location guidance for London. London: Transport for London.
Van Wee, B. (2016). Accessible accessibility research challenges. Journal of Transport Geography, 51, 9–16.
Woodhouse, A. (2018, February 5). Tesla sales drop in Hong Kong after tax breaks removed. Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/2b8eb480-0a45-11e8-839d-41ca06376bf2
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Sylvia He, Shuli Luo, Ka Kit Sun
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with JTLU agree to the following terms: 1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.