The effects of exclusive on-street carsharing parking on carsharing perception and car ownership: A structural equation modeling approach


  • Felix Czarnetzki Hamburg University of Technology



Street space allocation, Parking policy, Parking facilities, Public space, Urban mobility, Vehicle sharing


Carsharing is considered an effective tool for reducing car ownership, especially in high-density urban areas. Dedicated on-street carsharing parking spaces (CPS) are a promising but under-researched approach to increase the attractiveness and impact of carsharing. Since 2017, Hamburg, Germany, has focused on providing small clusters of such carsharing parking spaces in inner-city residential neighborhoods. This paper is based on survey data of users of these parking spaces. A structural equation model is applied to examine the effects of exclusive carsharing parking spaces on the perception of carsharing as well as on car ownership of carsharing users. The results confirm that the provision of exclusive and conveniently accessible carsharing parking spaces promotes the perception of carsharing as a viable substitute for private cars, which ultimately leads to lower actual car ownership. However, perceived usability constraints of these facilities, such as long access distances or parking violations, lead to significant losses in their effectiveness.


Abbasi, S., Ko, J., & Kim, J. (2021). Carsharing station location and demand: Identification of associated factors through Heckman selection models. Journal of Cleaner Production, 279, 123846.

Ampudia-Renuncio, M., Guirao, B., & Molina-Sánchez, R. (2018). The impact of free-floating carsharing on sustainable cities: Analysis of first experiences in Madrid with the university campus. Sustainable Cities and Society, 43, 462–475.

Becker, H., Ciari, F., & Axhausen, K. W. (2017). Comparing car-sharing schemes in Switzerland: User groups and usage patterns. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 97, 17–29.

Bundesverband CarSharing. (2023). Factsheet carsharing in Deutschland 2023. Berlin: Bundesverband CarSharing e.V.

Cantelmo, G., Amini, R. E., Monteiro, M. M., Frenkel, A., Lerner, O., Tavory, S. S., …& Antoniou, C. (2022). Aligning users’ and stakeholders’ needs: How incentives can reshape the carsharing market. Transport Policy, 126, 306–326.

Ceccato, R., Diana, M. (2021). Substitution and complementarity patterns between traditional transport means and car sharing: A person and trip level analysis. Transportation, 48, 1523–1540.

Chen, X., Cheng, J., Ye, J., Jin, Y., Li, X., & Zhang, F. (2018). Locating station of one-way carsharing based on spatial demand characteristics. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 5493632.

Chicco, A., Diana, M., Loose, W., & Nehrke, G. (2022). Comparing car ownership reduction patterns among members of different car sharing schemes operating in three German inner-city areas. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 163, 370–385.

Coenegrachts, E., Beckers, J., Vanelslander, T., Verhetsel, A. (2021). Business model blueprints for the shared mobility hub network. Sustainability, 13(12), 6939.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159.

Costain, C., Andron, C., & Habib, K. (2012). Synopsis of user’s behavior of a carsharing program: A case study in Toronto. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46(3), 421–434.

Czarnetzki, F., & Siek, F. (2022). Decentralized mobility hubs in urban residential neighborhoods improve the contribution of carsharing to sustainable mobility: Findings from a quasi‑experimental study. Transportation.

De Lorimier, A., & El-Geneidy, A. M. (2013). Understanding the factors affecting vehicle usage and availability in carsharing networks: A case study of Communauto carsharing system from Montréal, Canada. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 7(1), 35–51.

De Luca, S., & Di Pace, R. (2015). Modelling users’ behavior in inter-urban carsharing program: A stated preference approach. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 71, 59–76.

Diana, M., & Ceccato, R. (2022). A multimodal perspective in the study of car sharing switching intentions. Transportation Letters, 14(4), 317–323.

Dowling, R., & Kent, J. (2015). Practice and public-private partnerships in sustainable transport governance: The case of car sharing in Sydney, Australia. Transport Policy, 40, 58–64.

Follmer, R., Pirsig, T., Belz, J., Brand, T., Eggs, J., Ermes, B., … & Roggendorf, M. (2020). Mobilität in Deutschland MiD – Regionalbericht stadt Hamburg. Bonn, Berlin: Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Giesel, F., & Nobis, C. (2016). The impact of carsharing on car ownership in German cities. Transportation Research Procedia, 19, 215–224.

Glotz-Richter, M. (2016). Reclaim street space! Exploit the European potential of car sharing. Transportation Research Procedia, 14, 1296–1304.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43, 115–135.

Herrmann, S., Schulte, F., & Voß, S. (2014). Increasing acceptance of free-floating car sharing systems using smart relocation strategies: A survey-based study of car2go Hamburg. In R. G. González-Ramírez, F. Schulte, F. Voß, & J. A. Ceroni Díaz (Eds.), International conference on computational logistics 2014, Lecture notes in computer science, 151–162.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

Jochem, P., Frankenhauser, D., Ewald, L., Ensslen, A., & Fromm, H. (2020). Does free-floating car-sharing reduce private vehicle ownership? The case of SHARE NOW in European cities. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 141, 373–395.

Jorgensen, T. D., Pornprasertmanit, S., Schoemann, A. M., Rosseel, Y. (2022). semTools: Useful tools for structural equation modeling. Retrieved from

Ko, J., Ki, H., & Lee, S. (2019). Factors affecting carsharing program participants’ car ownership changes. Transportation Letters, 11(4), 208–218.

Kopp, J., Gerike, R., & Axhausen, K. W. (2015). Do sharing people behave differently? An empirical evaluation of the distinctive mobility patterns of free-floating carsharing members. Transportation, 42, 449–469.

Le Vine, S., & Polak, J. (2019). The impact of free-floating carsharing on car ownership: Early-stage findings from London. Transport Policy, 75, 119–127.

Li, C. H. (2016). The performance of ML, DWLS, and ULS estimation with robust corrections in structural equation models with ordinal variables. Psychological Methods, 21(3), 369–387.

Liao, F., Molin, E., Timmermans, H., & van Wee, B. (2020). Carsharing: The impact of system characteristics on its potential to replace private car trips and reduce car ownership. Transportation, 47, 935–970.

Matthes, G., & Gertz, C. (2014). Raumtypen für Fragestellungen der handlungstheoretisch orientierten Personenverkehrsforschung. European Centre for Transportation and Logistics (ECTL) (Working paper 45). Hamburg: Hamburg University of Technology.

Namazu, M., & Dowlatabadi, H. (2018). Vehicle ownership reduction: A comparison of one-way and two-way carsharing systems. Transport Policy, 64, 38–50.

Nobis, C., & Kuhnimhof, T. (2018). Mobilität in Deutschland – MiD Ergebnisbericht. Bonn, Berlin: Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Paundra, J., Rook, L., van Dalen, J., & Ketter, W. (2017). Preferences for car sharing services: Effects of instrumental attributes and psychological ownership. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 53, 121–130.

Peterson, R. A., & Kim, Y. (2013). On the relationship between coefficient alpha and composite reliability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 194–198.

Prieto, M., Baltas, G., & Stan, V. (2017). Carsharing adoption intention in urban areas: What are the key sociodemographic drivers? Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 101, 218–227.

Raykov, T. (2001). Bias of coefficient α for fixed congeneric measures with correlated errors. Applied Psychological Measurement, 25(1), 69–76.

Revelle, W. R. (2022). Psych: Procedures for personality and psychological research. Retrieved from

Rhemtulla, M., Brosseau-Liard, P. E., & Savalei, V. (2012). When can categorical variables be treated as continuous? A comparison of robust continuous and categorical SEM estimation methods under suboptimal conditions. Psychological Methods, 17(3), 354–373.

Rongen, T., Tillema, T., Arts, J., Alonso-González, M. J., & Witte, J. J. (2022). An analysis of the mobility hub concept in the Netherlands: Historical lessons for its implementation. Journal of Transport Geography, 104, 103419.

Rosseel, Y. (2012). Lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1–36.

Rotaris, L., Danielis, R., & Maltese, I. (2019). Carsharing use by college students: The case of Milan and Rome. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 120, 239–251.

Shi, D., & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2020). The effect of estimation methods on SEM fit indices. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 80(3), 421–445.

Van Buuren, S., & Groothuis-Oudshoorn, K. (2011). Mice: Multivariate imputation by chained equations in R. Journal of Statistical Software, 45(3), 1–67.

Voorhees, C. M., Brady, M. K., Calantone, R., & Ramirez, E. (2016). Discriminant validity testing in marketing: An analysis, causes for concern, and proposed remedies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44, 119–134.

Wang, J., Dane, G. Z., & Timmermans, H. J. P. (2020). Carsharing-facilitating neighborhood choice: A mixed logit model. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 36, 1033–1054.

Weustenenk, A. G., & Mingardo, G. (2023). Towards a typology of mobility hubs. Journal of Transport Geography, 106, 103514.

Wittwer, R., & Hubrich, S. (2018). Free-floating carsharing experiences in German metropolitan areas. Transportation Research Procedia, 33, 323–330.

Xia, Y., & Yang, Y. (2018). The influence of number of categories and threshold values on fit indices in structural equation modeling with ordered categorical data. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 53(5), 731–755.




How to Cite

Czarnetzki, F. (2023). The effects of exclusive on-street carsharing parking on carsharing perception and car ownership: A structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 16(1), 319–334.