Integrating transit and TNC services to improve job accessibility: Scenario analysis with an equity lens




ride-hailing, ridesoucing, Black, Asian, Hispanic, women


With the rapid growth of Transportation Network Company (TNC) services and the continued decline of transit ridership, existing research has proposed and some transit agencies have implemented programs that integrate transit and TNC services. This paper expands the research area to examine the equity implications of such integrations, focusing on job accessibility improvements for low-income workers. We develop an analytical framework that compares improvements in accessibility to jobs under different hypothetical scenarios in which TNC travel serves as the last-mile connection of transit services. Using the city of Chicago for the case study, this research confirms that such transit-TNC integration increases job accessibility for all low-income workers throughout the city, but it also pinpoints nuanced differences in the accessibility improvements among workers of different races, ethnicities, and sexes during peak and off-peak hours.


Alemi, F., Circella, G., Handy, S., & Mokhtarian, P. (2018). What influences travelers to use Uber? Exploring the factors affecting the adoption of on-demand ride services in California. Travel Behavior and Society, 13, 88–104.

Babar, Y., & Burtch, G. (2020). Examining the heterogeneous impact of ride-hailing services on public transit use. Information Systems Research, 31(3), 820–834.

Boarnet, M. G., Giuliano, G., Hou, Y., & Shin, E. J. (2017). First/last mile transit access as an equity planning issue. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 103, 296–310.

Cervero, R., Sandoval, O., & Landis, J. (2002). Transportation as a stimulus of welfare-to-work: Private versus public mobility. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 22(1), 50–63.

Chen, P. W., & Nie, Y. M. (2017). Connecting e-hailing to mass transit platform: Analysis of relative spatial position. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 77, 444–461.

Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning. (2020a). Community Data Snapshot Chicago. Retrieved from

Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning. (2020b). Conformity analysis: 2020 Q1 analysis year 2020 model inputs and outputs. Retrieved from

City of Chicago. (2020). Transportation network providers — Trips. Retrieved from

Clewlow, R. R., & Mishra, G. S. (2017). Disruptive transportation: The adoption, utilization, and impacts of ride-hailing in the United States. Davis, CA: Univesity of California, Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies.

Cui, B., Boisjoly, G., El-Geneidy, A., & Levinson, D. (2019). Accessibility and the journey to work through the lens of equity. Journal of Transport Geography, 74, 269–277.

Davidson, A., Peters, J., & Brakewood, C. (2017). Interactive travel modes: Uber, transit, and mobility in New York City. Washington, DC: Transporation Research Board.

Deboosere, R., & El-Geneidy, A. (2018). Evaluating equity and accessibility to jobs by public transport across Canada. Journal of Transport Geography, 73, 54–63.

Dillahunt, T. R., Kameswaran, V., Li, L., & Rosenblat, T. (2017). Uncovering the values and constraints of real-time ridesharing for low-resource populations. Paper presented at the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Denver, CO, May 6–11.

Dillahunt, T. R., & Veinot, T. C. (2018). Getting there: Barriers and facilitators to transportation access in underserved communities. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 25(5), 1–39.

El-Geneidy, A., Buliung, R., Diab, E., van Lierop, D., Langlois, M., & Legrain, A. (2016). Non-stop equity: Assessing daily intersections between transit accessibility and social disparity across the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA). Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 43(3), 540–560.

Enchautegui, M. E. (2013). Nonstandard work schedules and the well-being of low-income families. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Feigon, S., & Murphy, C. (2016). Shared mobility and the transformation of public transit. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Foth, N., Manaugh, K., & El-Geneidy, A. M. (2013). Towards equitable transit: Examining transit accessibility and social need in Toronto, Canada, 1996–2006. Journal of Transport Geography, 29, 1–10.

Ge, Y., Knittel, C. R., MacKenzie, D., & Zoepf, S. (2016). Racial and gender discrimination in transportation network companies (0898-2937). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Gehrke, S. R. (2020). Uber service area expansion in three major American cities. Journal of transport geography, 86, 102752.

Gibb, K., Osland, L., & Pryce, G. (2014). Describing inequalities in access to employment and the associated geography of wellbeing. Urban Studies, 51(3), 596–613.

Graehler, M., Mucci, R. A., & Erhardt, G. D. (2019). Understanding the recent transit ridership decline in major US cities: Service cuts or emerging modes. Paper presented at the 98th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Grahn, R., Harper, C. D., Hendrickson, C., Qian, Z., & Matthews, H. S. (2019). Socioeconomic and usage characteristics of transportation network company (TNC) riders. Transportation, 47, 3047–3067.

Grahn, R., Hendrickson, C., Qian, Z. S., & Matthews, H. S. (2019). Socioeconomic and Usage Characteristics of Public Transit Riders in the United States. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

Hall, J. D., Palsson, C., & Price, J. (2018). Is Uber a substitute or complement for public transit? Journal of Urban Economics, 108, 36–50.

Hansen, W. G. (1959). How accessibility shapes land use. Journal of the American Planning Association, 25(2), 73–76.

Hu, L. (2015). Job accessibility of the poor in Los Angeles: Has suburbanization affected spatial mismatch? Journal of the American Planning Association, 81(1), 30–45.

Hu, L. (2019). Racial/ethnic differences in job accessibility effects: Explaining employment and commutes in the Los Angeles region. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 76, 56–71.

Hu, L., Cao, J., & Yang, J. (2020). Planning for accessibility. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 88, 102575.

Jin, J., & Paulsen, K. (2017). Does accessibility matter? Understanding the effect of job accessibility on labour market outcomes. Urban Studies, 55(1), 91–115.

Jin, S. T., Kong, H., & Sui, D. Z. (2019). Uber, public transit, and urban transportation equity: A case study in new york city. The Professional Geographer, 71(2), 315–330.

Kawabata, M. (2003). Job access and employment among low-skilled autoless workers in US metropolitan areas. Environment and Planning A, 35(9), 1651–1668.

Kawabata, M., & Shen, Q. (2007). Commuting inequality between cars and public transit: The case of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1990-2000. Urban Studies, 44(9), 1759–1780.

Komanduri, A., Wafa, Z., Proussaloglou, K., & Jacobs, S. (2018). Assessing the impact of app-based ride share systems in an urban context: Findings from Austin. Transportation Research Record, 2672(7), 34–46.

Lavieri, P. S., & Bhat, C. R. (2019). Investigating objective and subjective factors influencing the adoption, frequency, and characteristics of ride-hailing trips. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 105, 100–125.

Levine, J., Grengs, J., Shen, Q., & Shen, Q. (2012). Does accessibility require density or speed? A comparison of fast versus close in getting where you want to go in US metropolitan regions. Journal of the American Planning Association, 78(2), 157–172.

Levinson, D. M. (1998). Accessibility and the journey to work. Journal of Transport Geography, 6(1), 11–21.

Lyft. (2020). How to estimate a Lyft ride's cost. Retrieved from

Mazareanu, E. (2020). Ride-sharing services in the U.S. Hamburg, Germnay: Statista.

Merlin, L. A., & Hu, L. (2017). Does competition matter in measures of job accessibility? Explaining employment in Los Angeles. Journal of Transport Geography, 64, 77–88.

Metro Transit. (2020). Guaranteed Ride Home. Metro Transit. Retrieved from

O'Brien, K. (2020). Transportation network company (TNC) ridehailing travel patterns in Chicago’s economically disconnected areas (Master's thesis), University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.

Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority. (2020). Transportation disadvantaged program. Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority. Retrieved from

Rayle, L., Dai, D., Chan, N., Cervero, R., & Shaheen, S. (2016). Just a better taxi? A survey-based comparison of taxis, transit, and ridesourcing services in San Francisco. Transport Policy, 45, 168–178.

Reck, D. J., & Axhausen, K. W. (2019). Ridesourcing for the first/last mile: How do transfer penalties impact travel time savings? Paper presented at the International Scientific Conference on Mobility and Transport, Munich, Germany (mobil.TUM).

Sanchez, T. W., Shen, Q., & Peng, Z. R. (2004). Transit mobility, jobs access and low-income labor participation in US metropolitan areas. Urban Studies, 41(7), 1313–1331.

Schwieterman, J. P., & Livingston, M. (2019). A review of partnerships between transportation network companies and public agencies in the United States. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.

Shaheen, S., & Chan, N. (2016). Mobility and the sharing economy: Potential to facilitate the first-and last-mile public transit connections. Built Environment, 42(4), 573–588.

Sikder, S. (2019). Who uses ride-hailing services in the United States? Transportation Research Record, 2673(12), 40–54.

Stiglic, M., Agatz, N., Savelsbergh, M., & Gradisar, M. (2018). Enhancing urban mobility: Integrating ride-sharing and public transit. Computers & Operations Research, 90, 12–21.

Thebault-Spieker, J., Terveen, L., & Hecht, B. (2017). Toward a geographic understanding of the sharing economy: Systemic biases in UberX and TaskRabbit. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 24(3), 1–40.

Tilahun, N., Thakuriah, P. V., Li, M., & Keita, Y. (2016). Transit use and the work commute: Analyzing the role of last mile issues. Journal of Transport Geography, 54, 359–368.

Tirachini, A. (2019). Ride-hailing, travel behavior and sustainable mobility: An international review. Transportation, 47(1)–37.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2017). LEHD origin-destination employment statistics. Retrieved from

U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2018). 2018 American community survey 5-year estimates. Retrieved from

U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2020). LEHD origin-destination employment statistics. Retrieved from

Uber. (2020). How much does a ride with the Uber app cost? Retrieved from

Wang, C.-H., & Chen, N. (2015). A GIS-based spatial statistical approach to modeling job accessibility by transportation mode: Case study of Columbus, Ohio. Journal of Transport Geography, 45, 1–11.

Yan, X. (2020). Evaluating household residential preferences for walkability and accessibility across three US regions. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 80, 102255.

Yan, X., Levine, J., & Zhao, X. (2019). Integrating ridesourcing services with public transit: An evaluation of traveler responses combining revealed and stated preference data. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 105, 683–696.

Young, M., Allen, J., & Farber, S. (2020). Measuring when Uber behaves as a substitute or supplement to transit: An examination of travel-time differences in Toronto. Journal of Transport Geography, 82, 102629.

Young, M., & Farber, S. (2019). The who, why, and when of Uber and other ride-hailing trips: An examination of a large sample household travel survey. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 119, 383–392.

Zhu, Z., Xu, A., He, Q.-C., & Yang, H. (2021). Competition between the transportation network company and the government with subsidies to public transit riders. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 152, 102426.

Zuniga-Garcia, N., Gurumurthy, K. M., Yahia, C. N., Kockelman, K. M., & Machemehl, R. B. (2022). Integrating shared mobility services with public transit in areas of low demand. Journal of Public Transportation, 24, 100032.

Zuo, T., Wei, H., & Chen, N. (2020). Promote transit via hardening first-and-last-mile accessibility: Learned from modeling commuters’ transit use. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 86, 102446.

Zuo, T., Wei, H., Chen, N., & Zhang, C. (2020). First-and-last mile solution via bicycling to improving transit accessibility and advancing transportation equity. Cities, 99, 102614.


Additional Files



How to Cite

Hu, L., & Sun, S. (2023). Integrating transit and TNC services to improve job accessibility: Scenario analysis with an equity lens. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 16(1), 43–.